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Russell, Michael Haneke e Benh Zeitlin. Milos Forman photo by HollywoodReporter. Acredito que ele caminha bem para um futuro promissor se continuar ambicioso na escolha de projetos.

King Schultz, e Samuel L. Jackson como o criado Stephen. Samuel L. Seus primeiros filmes formam uma trilogia que prioriza a estrutura narrativa.

Cena visual de Kill Bill: Vol. A Noiva quer matar Bill. E Django quer destruir Calvin Candie para resgatar sua esposa. Tarantino acredita que nada mais ferve o sangue do que uma vingancinha.

It Was A Holocaust. My Ancestors Are Slaves. Stolen From Africa. Foi um Holocausto. Meus antepassados foram escravos. Esse termo era utilizado pelos senhores referindo-se a seus escravos.

Mas ele fica um pouco sombrio quando atira em seus colegas sem olhar para o trabalho deles. Isso porque nem vou comentar sobre as cotas raciais racistas criadas pelo ex- e atual presidente Lula e companhia.

Mas isso pouco importa agora. King Schultz e Django formam uma dupla um tanto incomum photo by BeyongHollywood.

Jessica Chastain em seu exuberante Alexander McQueen photo by newswhip. Bom, mas vamos aos fatos:. Jennifer Lawrence em discurso emocionado photo by awardsdaily.

E para a Academia quebrar um recorde, tem que haver uma boa causa. Se as previsões se mantiverem, Argo deve levar o Oscar de Melhor Filme, reconhecimento merecido aos produtores.

O diretor Rich Moore a esq. O Lado Bom da Vida photo by cinemarcado. O novo filme de David O. Russell centro dirige a cena na lanchonete photo by indiewire.

Russell enxergou isso primeiro. Se fossemos resumir o filme numa sinopse, O Lado Bom da Vida estaria longe da lista dos filmes mais aguardados do ano, mas o fator David O.

Para viver a personagem Tiffany, havia uma fila de atrizes que tinha nomes como Rooney Mara e Anne Hathaway que teve que sair do projeto por conflitos de agenda.

Jennifer Lawrence 22 e Bradley Cooper 37 em cena photo by mediumutm. Em nenhum momento, o espectador se incomoda com o fato da atriz ser nova.

Jennifer Lawrence aceita o desafio e convence com sua maturidade e seu carisma na pele de Tiffany. Claro que seu personagem Pat Sr. Sua personagem Dolores procura o filme todo agradar a todos pelo lado afetivo.

Se a Academia resolver reconhecer o talento de David O. Eu discordo. Se ela vestisse um trapo, continuaria linda. Jennifer Lawrence em seu belo Christian Dior coral.

Jessica Alba consegue se destacar com esse tom de laranja de Oscar de la Renta photo by popsugar.

Sim, Cameron tem fama de ditador no set. Sobre os resultados, eu sabia que Argo sairia vitorioso no Globo de Ouro. Poderia Argo se tornar um novo Conduzindo Miss Daisy?

Os produtores de Argo , Ben Affleck a esq. Ainda sobre o Globo de Ouro, fui bastante otimista, achando que Argo levaria ainda roteiro, mas Quentin Tarantino foi agraciado nessa categoria.

Com Leonardo DiCaprio fora da corrida do Oscar, suas chances aumentam consideravelmente. E… Jodie Foster. O que posso dizer? Como muitos sabem, a srta.

Seria ela homossexual? Tem filhos de proveta? Isso pouco importa. Que comece uma nova fase em sua carreira!

Seguir Follow. Pesquisar por:. Curta o Blog no Face. Todos os posts com a tag A Hora Mais Escura. Literary theory: An introduction 2nd ed.

Minneapolis: The University of Minnesota Press. Language and power. New York: Longman. Fairclough, Norman.

Discourse and social change. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press. Foucault, Michel. The archaeology of knowledge and the discourse on language.

New York: Pantheon. Nietzsche, genealogy, history. Bouchard Ed. Simon, Trans. Freire, Paulo. Pedagogy of the oppressed Myra Bergman Ramos, Trans.

New York: Continuum. Gee, James Paul. An introduction to discourse analysis: Theory and method. Critical literacy as critical discourse analysis.

In Critical perspectives on literacy: Possibilities and practices pp. What is literacy? In Patrick Shannon Ed. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Goodall, Jr. Writing the new ethnography. The new poverty studies: The ethnography of power, politics, and impoverished people in the United States.

Greene, Maxine. Qualitative research and the uses of literature. Webb Eds. London: The Falmer Press. Hall, Stuart. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Hollindale, Peter. In Peter Hunt Ed. Hunt, Peter. Literature for children: Contemporary criticism. Lankshear, Colin. Changing literacies.

Luke, Allan. Text and discourse in education: An introduction to critical discourse analysis. Apple Ed. Beyond science and ideology critique: Developments in critical discourse analysis.

McGroarty Ed. New York: Cambridge University Press. McGillis, Roderick. Class action: Politics and critical practice.

New York: Twayne Publishers. McLaren, Peter. Schooling as a ritual performance: Toward a political economy of educational symbols and gestures 3rd ed.

Moss, Kirby. The color of class: Poor Whites and the paradox of privilege. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. Moynihan, Ruth B.

In Betty Bacon Ed. Minneapolis: Marx Educational Press Publications. Constructing critical literacies: Teaching and learning textual practice.

Nieto, Sonia. In Violet J. The light in their eyes: Creating multicultural learning communities. New York: Teachers College Press. Affirming diversity: The sociopolitical context of multicultural education 4th ed.

Ortner, Sherry. Reading America: Preliminary notes on class and culture. In Recapturing anthropology: Working in the present.

Richard G. Theory in anthropology since the sixties. Identities: The hidden life of class. Journal of Anthropological Research , 54 1 , 1— Paul, Lissa.

Reading otherways. Rudman, Masha K. Discourses of gender, ethnicity and class in Chicano literature. The Americas Review , 20 2 , 72— Shohat, Ella.

The struggle over representation: Casting, coalitions, and the politics of identification. New York: Verso.

Stephens, John. Analysing texts for children: Linguistics and stylistics. Street, Brian V. Cross-cultural approaches to literacy.

Social literacies: Critical approaches to literacy in development, ethnography and education. Woodward, Kathryn. Identity and difference.

Wooldridge, N. Tensions and ambiguities in critical literacy. Endnote 1. It offers a window into society and creates a space where children can meet people across lines of social difference e.

Critical multicultural analysis invites children to examine the social construction of difference, linking their experiences to broader sociopolitical practices Lystad, ; McGillis, Like ideology, socialization can be coercive or collaborative, constructive or destructive.

We will, however, also look at how some British influences have contributed to the shaping of U. Definitions of childhood vary throughout history, from culture to culture, and across socioeconomic class.

How childhood is defined greatly influences what adults want children to know, learn, and experience through literature. These definitions have evolved based on the socioeconomic position of the child and family.

Even in the days of the bards and their wanderings through medieval towns and villages, there was a distinction between stories for the upper and lower classes.

The reality was that the rich stayed rich and the poor remained poor. It was this understanding that sparked the stories about virtuous poor people and the greedy, avaricious, wicked rich Leeson, — Literature, especially in the form of ballads, often glorified robbers and rebels, thus serving as a subversive element, paving the way for later tales such as Robin Hood , which challenged the social hierarchy of the times.

Published stories the record of the times take us to England after the Renaissance. In the s, literature for children existed as instructional text; the words rendered in print were meant to teach skills, concepts, and cultural norms.

Early books hornbooks were made of wood and covered with animal skin to help them endure wear. But the children who learned from these books were few in number, relegated to the classes of families who could afford to purchase them, and to those who did not have to labor all day and had the time and means to devote to education.

In the late s, William Caxton, a prominent and successful publisher, realized that literature based on the oral tradition would sell to those people who could read and who could afford to buy books.

Chapbook stories were written forms of legends, ballads, and brief histories of the times. They remained popular in the United States through the s.

The first primer, New England Primer, was published in He believed that children were rational and pliable, and were tabulae rasae or blank slates.

He argued that children should enjoy learning through games and picture books, instead of mundane lists of letters, syllables and words. He believed that this joyful early childhood education was crucial for their character formation.

Starting in , John Newbery pioneered in the publishing and selling of books for children. He wrote books that were entertaining and unthreatening to children and contained useful information for parents.

He included brief essays in the introductions of his books with instructions to parents on how to raise their children. The field of book selling proliferated at this time.

It was during this time that the social myth of the American Dream was emerging on both sides of the Atlantic. It was greatly to the benefit of the upper class to hold out the view that, if a child who was poor was passive, obedient, deferential, and played by social rules, he or she would rise out of poverty and reap great rewards.

The portrayal of people of color was rare, and when it occurred was filled with stereotypes. This was a time of rapid growth of the middle class.

It was also a time when books were used to serve the particular needs of the different classes. Reformers admonished the rich to eschew idleness, and sang the praises of the virtuous poor.

These tracts were distributed among the poor in order to persuade them of their respectful and rightful positions as servants to the upper classes Leeson, — Material wealth was the goal of the middle class.

Given these middle class attitudes and the total hostility of the ruling class, education for the poor barely developed….

In the early 19th century a number of juvenile magazines were published, largely containing Christian moral instruction, but occasionally addressing the issue of slavery.

They were generally short-lived, and aimed at the affluent White population. This sort of treatment was the rule in the many inexpensive magazines made available for children to read.

An outspokenly anti-slavery periodical, The Juvenile Magazine , appeared in , and it ceased publication after four issues in It was the product of Arthur Donaldson who founded a free school in Philadelphia for Black children.

Donaldson printed a sketch of the Black poet, Phyllis Wheatley, in his last issue, as well as a chronology of slavery in the South.

Unfortunately, the financial needs of the school forced the premature cessation of the periodical. But alongside the deliberately didactic volumes were retold versions of folk tales, legends, and fairy tales of the European writers Charles Perrault, Jacob and Wilhem Grimm, and Hans Christian Andersen.

It is notable that the versions were not of the English folk, but of an imported and refined variety. Meanwhile, the primary audience for books for young readers was the children of the middle class.

Although some writers forecasted the end of the Empire and even called attention to the treatment of the poor and of people of color, for the most part these populations were ignored in print.

The American Anti-Slavery Society published a pointedly anti-slavery journal aimed at children in This journal for children called attention to the cruelty of the African slave trade.

This periodical also succumbed to financial stress, as well as to the threatening disapproval of the anti-abolitionist movements. By the middle of the 19th century, conditions for the working poor had worsened and the children of the poor barely had any schooling available to them.

Nevertheless, Sunday schools and a few day and factory schools somehow managed to teach more and more poor children how to read.

Then, in , a law was passed in England to support the setting up of free libraries. Our Young Folks, which circulated from to , combined an anti-slavery stance with a strong middle-to-upper middle class Protestant morality.

The magazine printed many genres including nonfiction, with a number of pieces staunchly anti-slavery and pro-Union. However, much of the writing was somewhat patronizing in terms of the representation of Black characters.

Similarly, Native Americans were represented with condescension, as were Jews. In the United States at the end of the 19th century, Andrew Carnegie played an important role in making books accessible to the children of the poor.

According to Michael Lorenzen , Carnegie had no access to education because he worked long hours as a laborer. However, Colonel Anderson, his benefactor, started a small library of books, which he lent on Saturday afternoons to local boys.

This is how Carnegie educated himself. Carnegie wrote in his Autobiography of Andrew Carnegie : This is but a slight tribute and gives only a faint idea of the depth of gratitude, which I feel for what, he did for me and my companions.

It was from my own early experience that I decided there was no use to which money could be applied so productive of good to boys and girls who have good within them and ability and ambition to develop it, as the founding of a public library in a community….

His libraries made it more possible for children of the poor to acquire and practice their literacy skills by gaining access to real books as more and more were published for child audiences.

The magazine was 15 cents a copy and was produced monthly. Its focus was on African American children. It contained short stories, poems, biographies of prominent Black people, and news items.

Five issues had contributions by Langston Hughes. The cover illustrations as well as those inside the book were by African-American artists.

Many photographs were used as illustrations. The published material represented the diversity of the Black population in appearance, settings, class affiliations, and attitudes.

In its last edition, W. But the magazine was begun just at the time of industrial depression following the war, and the fault of our suspension therefore is rather in the times, which are so out of joint, than in our constituency.

The last issue was released in December In , Diane Johnson-Feelings wrote a book called The Best of Brownies, thus bringing to the attention of contemporary children some of the material from the original publication.

In her dissertation, Violet Harris reports that the founders had a number of objectives in creating this periodical.

The audiences for most of the books were primarily White children reading about White worlds. However, a growing number of writers and artists of color are being acknowledged and rewarded for their talents.

Some of these focus strictly on the text; others admit to ideologies that drive them socially as well as cognitively.

Teachers and librarians have a wealth of topics and themes to offer their readers. Sometimes the subject matter is sensitive and controversial.

Sometimes what one group deems constructive is judged to be harmful, dangerous, and inappropriate by another. These challenges occur locally and are attended to in various ways by local librarians and teachers.

Selection depends on many different perspectives and often would benefit from multiple readings in order to make the decision of whether or not to purchase a book, and how to offer it to young readers once it has been selected.

He has been employed as school custodian at The Park School, Baltimore, Maryland for the past thirty years. During an annual school assembly, he shares his story with the seventh graders.

Although she is not indicated as co-author on the book cover, Susan Roth, a parent of one of the students in the school and a published author, persuaded Mr.

Tillage to tape record his story so that she could set it into print. In juxtaposing literary, developmental, reader response, feminist, multicultural, and critical multicultural analysis, we pose critical questions about how the reader, the text, and society are positioned.

Literary Approach The literary approach focuses on the aesthetic aspects of the text e. Although the emotional impact of the piece of literature is an important component of the aesthetic analysis, implicit in this approach is that literary works should transcend race, class, and gender and should, in essence, retain a fixed meaning over time and despite contexts.

To examine this quality using a critical multicultural analysis, one might interpret it as a deliberate avoidance of artificiality, a sign of not succumbing to membership in the established group of professional authors.

Or conversely, this style could serve to empower the reader and narrator at the same time, by inviting the reader to reject those details and extensions that might have been included by a more verbose author.

However, a possible implication could also be that the facts are strong enough to make readers confront their own privilege and complicity in acts of racism.

On the other hand, Leon is explicit about the possibilities afforded African Americans by education, even though his father is skeptical of the benefits.

Perhaps he is influenced by his audience of young scholars at The Park School; it may be, however, that his ability to read and write constituted a significant personal achievement to him.

For the most part, the story is told in standard English. But sometimes, in rare instances, Leon uses the double negative construction of vernacular Black English.

For some readers, that might be jarring and confusing. What is the impact of his code switching? Does he use it for emphasis?

What drove the authors Leon Walter Tillage and Susan Roth to choose the few double negative statements in the book and maintain standard English for the most part, or is there no intentionality here?

If there is intent or not, what is the impact on the reader? Part of the aesthetic appeal of this story is that it is in the form of the first person narrative.

This format provides an intimacy difficult to achieve in other genres. Leon is providing us with his selective perspective.

He is assuming that the implied reader is sympathetic. He has a sense of the audience, what the audience already knows, and is familiar with the social tenor of the school.

What are the implications of a first-person narrative? In literary terms, it is designed to personalize and to invite empathy on the part of the reader.

In other words, the first-person narrative can make the reader either support or disagree with the narrator. Leon does not use the details of his personal life to endear the reader to him.

We also learn that his mother is thriving and is the first female deacon of her church. We wonder about what kind of story would have been written if Mr.

Tillage had collaborated with someone else, or had written the story himself. We also wonder about how much Ms.

Roth changed the original text. All editing was done with his participation and approval. Certainly this project brought two people together across social lines and different storytelling and writing experience.

Gaile Sloan Cannella cautions against assuming a common human developmental pathway that disregards the myriad differences among children.

Children demonstrate a wide range of changes and variations shaped by the interplay of biological, historical, sociopolitical, environmental, and cultural factors.

The Park School teachers have made the decision to include Mr. The school has made an assumption about the developmental appropriateness of this kind of information for twelve-year-olds.

However, now that the story is in print, it is not possible to control the age range of the readership. The simplicity of the language might invite a younger audience.

On the other hand, the graphic cruelty depicted here might constitute an overwhelmingly difficult burden for younger readers to manage.

Reader Response Approach While the developmental approach tries to match the text with the growth stage of the reader, the reader response approach inserts the reader into the text.

However, focusing exclusively on the personal individual experience and bypassing the sociopolitical impact could trivialize institutionalized racism or oppression.

In the most favorable of circumstances, readers fill in the gaps of particular texts, drawing on their own knowledge and personal experience.

Reader response theory claims that readers personally create meanings from their lived experience. John Stephens argues: In my view, the present habit of stressing reader-focused approaches to text in combination with advocacy of identification with focalizers [main characters], inconsistent as this may be, is a dangerous ideological tool and pedagogically irresponsible.

It fosters an illusion that readers are in control of texts whereas they are highly susceptible to the ideologies of the text, especially the unarticulated or implicit ideologies.

If students can import unreflective sexism and oppressive and limited forms of thought into the text and then see that as an authoritative reading of that text, texts can only confirm the legitimacy of the oppressive world they live in.

Mingshui Cai , in his seminal article in Language Arts, defends transactional reader response theory and makes a case for the expansion of the notion of multicultural awareness into the aesthetic component of this theory.

Eventually, combined with an expanded efferent stance i. Feminist Approach The feminist approach focuses on gender relations depicted in any text.

Like the other ideologically positioned approaches, it asks who has power and who does not. It would be interesting to find out how she became the deacon of the church, and how looking back on it from her current place in history, she might have changed what she said to her children.

But to impose a focus on a character that does not figure largely in the story would be a distortion. A feminist critique might examine more closely the role of women within the family.

It might also question the apparently casual dismissal of the two women to whom Leon was married. On the other hand, Leon has eight brothers and sisters, but he does not include much information about his brothers or about himself.

Early feminist approaches often fail to show how gender intersects with race and class. This is unfair to the feminists who go beyond simple focalizing on gender in isolation from other power relations.

As readers, we are invited into this personal story about a sharecropping family in a particular historical period. When she cooked collard greens she would take home the discarded liquid to make a soup.

We also learn about the culture of the White community, whose children ride a bus to a school housed in a big beautiful building with steam heat and a large kitchen.

Johnson, a White property owner, has an attitude not far removed from having been a plantation owner. In contrast, Mr. Clark are kind and cordial to the Black community and to its children in particular.

The Black children work in the fields all summer, but the White children lie in the shade and never have to work to help their families.

Recreation time was sitting around the fire in the evenings, listening to the elder people talking about family members, family history, cooking, washing clothes with lye soap, and their work on farms.

Unlike the White families, they had no radio or other means of entertainment, except that on Saturdays Leon and his siblings did go to the movies.

Using a multicultural perspective the reader gathers information about cultural practices and mores of all the characters in the story.

In our view, it is important to recognize and value culture, without isolating it from other factors such as power, history, and politics.

Their cultural practices are largely shaped by historical and sociopolitical factors. Critical Multicultural Approach Leon begins his narrative with how ashamed he is to be Black and ends the story with how proud he is to be honored by The Park School with a scholarship fund and other recognitions.

The implication is that this is a character that developed, much because of history and changing attitudes, and also because of his involvement in civil rights marches and demonstrations.

He does not merely talk about civil rights action, he participates in it. On the one hand, Leon seems compliant, even complicit, and on the other hand, by bringing up the injustices in what appears to be a seemingly acceptant stance, he plants within the reader the seeds of outrage at the inhumanity of racism.

A critical multicultural analysis locates how power is exercised, circulated, negotiated, and reconstructed. In the process of creating the published text, Ms.

Although this is the first time his story has been set down in print, Leon has chosen to tell the story repeatedly to the children of The Park School.

In doing so, Leon exercises agency and influences his audience by exposing racism and encouraging the listeners to connect the present to the past.

It is to her credit that she honored Mr. It is Leon who paves the way for the reader to be immersed in the events of the time and the feelings of the characters.

It personalizes the events, but we must not stop there. Critical multicultural analysis demands that we look at the historical and sociopolitical layers of this narrative, as well as the social interactions among the characters.

Leon is a rare person. Despite the cruelty and injustice, he never becomes a martyr. He never diminishes injustice, but recognizes the complexities of the human condition, and, that in some ways, White people were victims of a racist system too.

That Leon endured is miraculous. That he is able to tell his story so piercingly is a gift to the reader. The book not only raises the spectre of the coercive power of the Klan and the collusion of the government, but it also showcases collaborative power of Leon and his family.

Leon provides the reader with a practical understanding of the power of education, without leaving it abstract.

He provides examples. In a few words, Leon also demonstrates how the plantation-power structure deprived the sharecropper of some basic needs such as running water and electricity.

The culture of the plantation is graphically drawn, and the coexisting culture of the family with strict rules, strong values, and regular interaction with the community, mostly through the church, also communicated.

This culture is not exoticized or romanticized. It provides information to the reader and a context for the action of the story. The family shows resistance that might not have been visible to the owners, that included a strong immediate and extended family cohesion, regular, communal church attendance, and provision of healthful food like the liquid from collard greens, the benefits of which the owners were unaware.

Throughout the book, while he does not speak bitterly, he does point to injustice. Leon is not a fool. He knows that Mr. Johnson is, in actuality, in collusion with the Klansmen.

If the book were to be divided into sections of domination, collusion, resistance, and agency, this section would reflect resistance. It invites us to co-construct history and society but, even before that, to actively construct who we are, and to keep on asking questions.

Critical multicultural analysis is a framework for teaching literature and constructing curriculum. It is literary study for social change. Readers, young and adult alike, can grapple, inquire, and engage with issues of social transformation and justice through their reading.

By uncovering systems of meaning that perpetuate social inequities, readers can reposition themselves and envision new intellectual spaces, new social worlds.

Thus, we explore critical approaches to analyzing literature that involve active participation on the part of the reader. Reader response, feminist, multicultural, and critical analyses all require readers to question, problematize, deconstruct, and engage with text in ways that are not prepackaged, standardized, or even predictable.

Combined, they all demand attention to power and to the examination of social and institutional practices.

Together, they have implications for pedagogy, and they all have ramifications for social action. Critical multicultural analysis brings all of these lenses together and connects our reading to personal, interactive, complex, multicultural, sociopolitical, and historical factors.

Take notice of patterns across the grades. Juxtapose lists across the class. What are some similar experiences? What are some differences?

What social factors contributed to the similarities and differences? What elements of the original storyline and illustrations have endured over time?

Why do some of the same characteristics still exist? What are the issues? What constitutes a controversy? Take inventory of the cultural representations in the books and genres that stock your shelves.

How is the artwork presented in the texts and on the covers? What images are found in the texts? Who is represented? What are they doing?

Note differences in gender, race or ethnicity, and social class. How are various social groups depicted? What are the storylines present in these texts?

Which cultural experiences and genres are not present on your shelves? In what ways can you diversify your collection? Borrow books from school and local libraries?

Suggestions for Further Reading Hunt, Peter. Lurie, Allison. Boston: Little, Brown and Company. Murray, Gail S. Zipes, Jack. New York: Oxford University Press.

Illustrated by Susan L. Secondary Sources Barton, Phyllis Settecase. Broderick, Dorothy. New York: R.

Bowker Co. Cannella, Gaile Sloan. Deconstructing early childhood education: Social justice and revolution.

New York: Peter Lang. Carnegie, Andrew. Autobiography of Andrew Carnegie. Boston: Northeastern University Press.

Revised Edition. Harris, Violet. Unpublished dissertation, University of Georgia. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

Lather, Patricia Ann. Leeson, Robert. Reading and righting: The past, present and future of fiction for the young.

London: Collins. Lesnik-Oberstein, Karin. Hunt Ed. Lorenzen, Michael. Retrieved on September 12, , from www. Lystad, Mary. Mather to Dr. Seuss: years of American books.

Boston: Schenkman Publishing Co. Class action. Morgenstern, John. The examination of this history demonstrates that literacy practices are social practices; that is, they are linked to human activity and interaction, to something we want to accomplish socially and politically.

There is evidence that writing systems developed independently in Sumer B. Diamond speculates on whether writing systems were copied as they spread, or whether they inspired other groups to invent their own systems of writing.

Writing for personal use emerged when writing systems became standardized and easier to decipher, facilitating access. The history of reading, as developed in Western Europe, emerged with the invention of the alphabet and the development of writing by the ancient Greeks 80 B.

Orality was part of ancient reading practices, even during private reading, because of the unseparated lines of text. Silent reading no tongue and lip movement was not common.

The wealthy echelons depended on educated slaves to read to them. It was not until the seventh century that Celtic monks introduced word separation and syntactic punctuation into Latin and Greek texts.

The word-separated text format remained a unique phenomenon of the British Isles until the tenth century. By the twelfth century the word-separated and punctuated texts spread across Western Europe.

The introduction of printing with movable type after the twelfth century and the use of the vernacular represent the major developments that contributed to the increase of people who could engage in silent reading in countries such as England and France.

In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries the production of print materials increased dramatically. The availability of written materials contributed greatly to mass literacy.

Historicizing School Literacies The following historical sketch, constrained by its linear representation of the past, generalizes practices over time and across contexts.

It is important to note that homeschooling practices and independent schools were in existence, as well as children who were speakers of underrepresented varieties of English.

English language learners were not having the same experiences as children who had access to the language of power, standard American English.

In addition, it is difficult to untangle how class, gender, and race play a part in these trends. Certainly race and class are tangled up with language diversity issues.

Policies, pedagogies, research, publishing practices, and child development theories have greatly shaped the teaching of school literacies over time.

Families were expected to teach children how to read. By the mids, Massachusetts established the first publiclyfunded schools for large communities.

Fifty to years later the rest of New England and other colonies instituted grammar schools to teach children Protestant responsibilities, including the memorization of Bible verses.

Hornbooks and the New England Primer were the main texts used during these first years of public schooling.

However, Shannon maintains that there is little evidence that these texts were used in the teaching of reading. What he notices is that the instructional materials of this period possess a change in tone, a reflection of how children were perceived.

During the s, reading education emphasized word identification over meaning and oral reading over discussion. The spelling method dominated the teaching of reading during the first half of this century.

Children learned the names of letters, spelled and pronounced lists of two- and three-letter nonsense syllables, and then spelled and pronounced lists of a variety of words before they began to read sentences orally.

By the latter part of the s, most urban teachers shifted their focus to syllables and pronunciation of words.

Rural teachers continued with the spelling method of reading for many more years. The teaching of writing during this period comprised three activities: children gained mastery of pen use as they formed letters, copied words and text, and reproduced their work.

Writing supplies were scarce. Teachers often fashioned supplies out of local materials. Horace Mann advocated for the word method during the s and s, but it did not take root until the late s and s.

Then teachers and children engaged in discussion about their meaning. Oftentimes, the word method was undermined because some teachers combined word method textbooks with phonics instruction.

Thus, prior to , reading instruction was reduced to reading aloud, with the teacher selecting bits of passages for children to read aloud and offer support with pronunciation Finkelstein, , as cited in Shannon, Progressive educators like Colonel Francis Parker tried to institute this pedagogy in Quincy, Massachusetts.

Parker endorsed the word method because he believed children could learn to read as they learned to talk.

He advocated for an integrated approach to language arts teaching. He believed grammar and phonics teaching could wait until children had an understanding of written language and were deemed intellectually ready.

Rice surveyed 36 cities in For the past 85 years plus, reading experts and commercial publishers have dictated reading practices because of the prevalence of basal readers in schools.

This historical sketch is useful in recontextualizing teaching practices in order to deconstruct the ideologies implicit in pedagogy.

During this period, reading was taught in isolated, decontextualized lessons. It was believed that once children mastered these lessons, comprehension would follow.

Spelling, handwriting, and written composition were taught in isolation from each other. Commercially produced curriculum basal readers is the mainstay in these classrooms, anchored by scope and sequence charts.

The focus is on the mechanics of written language, especially phonemic awareness, phonics, spelling, grammar, and vocabulary.

Children read more from kindergarten through grade 6. The focus was on reading for meaning, using the cueing systems i.

The reading process was made visible and public through metacognition thinking about the thinking.

Phonics learning became heavily aligned with special education. Research or library skills were introduced in upper elementary grades.

Literacy as a psycholinguistic guessing game Goodman, characterizes this period. Classroom learning is more collaborative and peer interaction is fostered.

The four language modes, that is, reading, writing, listening, and speaking, are integrated. The children are encouraged to use their schemata prior knowledge , metacognition, and metalanguage thinking about the language.

The focus is on personal development and transformation. Large print materials e. Teachers and children read more together and independently.

The writing process became a focus in schools. All children were encouraged to emulate writers, with young children approximating the writing process with drawings and scribbles and invented spelling.

Invented spelling became foundational in early childhood classrooms. Children were invited to make connections among reading, writing, and spelling, since the goal was for children to read books and be immersed in the language of books.

Emergent literacy was recognized; that is, the literacy practices children acquire during the first decade of their lives.

Children were exposed to multiple texts. The shift from reading and writing to literacy reflected the integration of the language modes e.

Both perspectives also privilege the mind over the social or contextual aspects of learning. Cognitive-psychology, in particular, considers culture as one of many variables that influence meaning making.

The sociocultural perspective places culture at the center of literacy learning. Literacy is deemed as a set of social practices that children, families, and communities engage in.

Literacy learning is regarded as processes that are intellectual, emotional, motivational, and social. Multiliteracies New London Group, , the literacies that children practice in schools and out of school, are acknowledged.

Literacy was used to develop knowledge and understanding, and to achieve personal growth. Literacy was defined as the integration of speaking, listening, and critical thinking e.

Literacy was recognized as purposeful, flexible, and dynamic. Literacies are social practices, connected to and constructed by everyday practices and many contexts e.

The Reading First initiative of this legislation has dramatically changed the literacy teaching of children in kindergarten through grade 3.

The NCLB Act punishes rather than supports schools and lower income children, helps further an agenda of privatization of public schools, and further institutionalizes classism and racism.

Cognitive-psychological perspectives of literacy largely inform the NCLB law. Literacy Defined The above historical sketch demonstrates that literacy practices are not a fixed set of practices.

They are socially constructed and always in flux, depending on many sociopolitical factors. Literacies are not autonomous but ideological; the sociopolitical context shapes the ideologies and power relations in which they take place Street, We draw on a wide array of literacy practices, shaped by exposure, experience, and access.

According to James Gee , literacy is discourse. Secondary discourses develop from primary discourses. And this metaknowledge is best developed through learning, though often learning applied to a discourse one has to a certain extent already acquired.

Thus, critical reading increases power and flexibility the more it is practiced. Our theoretical position moves reading and writing away from an exclusively cognitive model which positions literacy as an internal, individual, psychological act, to literacy as a sociocultural, multiple, and political practice.

All language modalities and literacy practices inform each other. For example, speaking can inform reading, and writing can inform reading.

School literacies tend to privilege reading and writing over the other modalities. Our contention is that any approach that excludes the social and political dimensions of reading maintains and reproduces dominant power relations.

We advocate for a shift away from the psychological definition of literacy to one that includes a social activity that takes place in a particular context, with particular people, involving particular relations and structures of power, values, beliefs, goals, purposes, interests, economic, and political conditions.

Texts, oral and written, are discursive sites, sociopolitical products imbued with units of language that move within a discursive grid. A critical multicultural reading, then, involves reconstruction of subjectivities and repositioning the reader as a researcher of language and creator of meaning.

This model does not represent a continuum or a linear process, but rather a dynamic family of practices. The four resources are code breaking, text participating, text using, and text critiquing.

This resource model is not bound to a developmental or pedagogical schedule; it honors what children know. Code breaking cognitive-psychological is not learned first, in isolation from the other literacy practices.

Code breaking is learned as children engage with text participation, text use and text analysis. Code breaking includes alphabetic and letter-sound knowledge.

While the teaching of phonics is an important part of literacy learning, it is problematic to begin there. Phonics assigns a fixed sound value to each letter, a difficult matter in the English language.

In addition, many languages have contributed to the English language through cultural contact and conquest ; often the spelling patterns reflect the original spelling.

Lastly, there are many varieties of spoken English, with different accents producing different pronunciations and speech sounds. Text participation psycholinguistic takes children inside the text.

Text participants understand and construct meaningful written, visual, and spoken texts from prior experiences.

Children are invited to interact and to ask questions of the text. The role of the teacher is to deepen understanding by posing questions that were not explored, and to seek multiple perspectives.

Some questions to explore: What are the origins of your name? What does it mean? What does your name tell others about your cultural heritage?

Do you know your name in another language? Do you have a nickname? She is named after her paternal grandmother. The Portuguese tradition was to name baby girls Maria, symbolizing their devotion to the Virgin Mary.

Botelho is an old Portuguese name, meaning ancient corn measure. Names create spaces for text-using practices. Children can complete a two-column list: On the left side, make a list of all the names they can remember being called, including nicknames.

On the other side, next to each name, list the people who used it and identify the context. All of these names represent her. Her American colleagues and friends call her Maria.

Her Canadian family calls her Mary Jo. Some friends call her MJ. The text critic sociopolitical understands that texts are not neutral; that is, they represent particular worldviews and silence other perspectives, as well as influence how people perceive themselves in the world.

The text critic steps back from the text and analyzes the explicit and implicit messages in the text. Return to the name list: What do the children notice?

Any surprises? In what ways have their names been changed? In what ways did their names remain the same? But her family complied. In school and in her neighborhood, she tried to encourage teachers, classmates, friends, and neighbors to say her full first name.

As a young adult, she became a U. She reclaimed her full first name during her immigration to Canada. Maria Josephine is her legal name, the one you will see on her U.

Names are texts that can help children see how language works as well as how language and power are bound together.

Analysis of Literacy Narratives Literacy narratives are books that depict characters engaged in the language modes of speaking, listening, writing, reading, representing, and viewing.

A critical multicultural analysis of these texts can uncover the implicit definitions of literacies imbedded in the books, as well as highlight prevailing assumptions about literacy practices.

The goal is to locate a variety of texts showing a range of literacies, including literacies as tools for social change. However, this category can obfuscate some of the factors that have kept characters from literacy learning.

Racism and socioeconomic oppression, family illiteracy because of poverty, and lack of access to literacy teaching and printed materials are manifestations of power relations.

Lastly, there is a danger in thinking that passionate desire for literacy is enough; it does not mean that the reader will apply that reading in any way.

The transformation is at the individual level. Readers also need to learn about examples of the power of literacy to organize and create change, especially noticing the role literacy can play in the exercise of collaborative power.

In other words, they find pleasure or important information through reading and writing. What is key here is to see a wide representation of the wonder of literacy.

For example, pleasure can come from critical multicultural analysis and not be exclusive to reading without disturbing the status quo.

The wonder can lead to using multiliteracies and other modalities e. These categories, as the authors maintain, are not mutually exclusive, but work together, with one foregrounded and others evident in the background of the story.

Their interpretations are individualistic, extracting the interaction from a sociopolitical context.

In her dissertation research, Jennifer K. Geringer locates instances of multiple literacies e. Using a traditional definition of literacy as reading and writing, Hoffman notes that there is an increase of literacy images in books for children.

The images reflect literacy strictly as reading and writing practices. Hoffman advocates for research to examine broader definitions of literacy and whether those literacies are portrayed.

Geringer addresses this recommendation. Natural, aesthetic, physical, and social were the most prevalent multiple literacies.

After reading Wolf! This mismatch impelled Serafini to examine how picture books depict reading and readers.

In Wolf! This pro-reading story perpetuates middle-class norms of reading for pleasure.

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Acredito que ele caminha bem para um futuro promissor se continuar ambicioso na escolha de projetos.

King Schultz, e Samuel L. Jackson como o criado Stephen. Samuel L. Seus primeiros filmes formam uma trilogia que prioriza a estrutura narrativa.

Cena visual de Kill Bill: Vol. A Noiva quer matar Bill. E Django quer destruir Calvin Candie para resgatar sua esposa. Tarantino acredita que nada mais ferve o sangue do que uma vingancinha.

It Was A Holocaust. My Ancestors Are Slaves. Stolen From Africa. Foi um Holocausto. Meus antepassados foram escravos. Esse termo era utilizado pelos senhores referindo-se a seus escravos.

Mas ele fica um pouco sombrio quando atira em seus colegas sem olhar para o trabalho deles. Isso porque nem vou comentar sobre as cotas raciais racistas criadas pelo ex- e atual presidente Lula e companhia.

Mas isso pouco importa agora. King Schultz e Django formam uma dupla um tanto incomum photo by BeyongHollywood. Jessica Chastain em seu exuberante Alexander McQueen photo by newswhip.

Bom, mas vamos aos fatos:. Jennifer Lawrence em discurso emocionado photo by awardsdaily. E para a Academia quebrar um recorde, tem que haver uma boa causa.

Se as previsões se mantiverem, Argo deve levar o Oscar de Melhor Filme, reconhecimento merecido aos produtores.

O diretor Rich Moore a esq. O Lado Bom da Vida photo by cinemarcado. O novo filme de David O. Russell centro dirige a cena na lanchonete photo by indiewire.

Russell enxergou isso primeiro. Se fossemos resumir o filme numa sinopse, O Lado Bom da Vida estaria longe da lista dos filmes mais aguardados do ano, mas o fator David O.

Para viver a personagem Tiffany, havia uma fila de atrizes que tinha nomes como Rooney Mara e Anne Hathaway que teve que sair do projeto por conflitos de agenda.

Jennifer Lawrence 22 e Bradley Cooper 37 em cena photo by mediumutm. Em nenhum momento, o espectador se incomoda com o fato da atriz ser nova.

Jennifer Lawrence aceita o desafio e convence com sua maturidade e seu carisma na pele de Tiffany. Claro que seu personagem Pat Sr.

Sua personagem Dolores procura o filme todo agradar a todos pelo lado afetivo. Se a Academia resolver reconhecer o talento de David O. Eu discordo.

Se ela vestisse um trapo, continuaria linda. Jennifer Lawrence em seu belo Christian Dior coral. Jessica Alba consegue se destacar com esse tom de laranja de Oscar de la Renta photo by popsugar.

Sim, Cameron tem fama de ditador no set. Sobre os resultados, eu sabia que Argo sairia vitorioso no Globo de Ouro.

Poderia Argo se tornar um novo Conduzindo Miss Daisy? Os produtores de Argo , Ben Affleck a esq. Ainda sobre o Globo de Ouro, fui bastante otimista, achando que Argo levaria ainda roteiro, mas Quentin Tarantino foi agraciado nessa categoria.

Com Leonardo DiCaprio fora da corrida do Oscar, suas chances aumentam consideravelmente. E… Jodie Foster. O que posso dizer?

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She sings; he plays guitar. After that I went to almost all of his shows and we sang together. None of the coaches were turning throughout the whole performance and then I got to the last note — the note that I had been saving and anticipating.

I hope you hear something with this last note. It was one of the best experiences of my life. I am addicted to older music and I wanted to be myself and show the coaches what kind of music I love.

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