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Nietzsche planned to write the book in three parts over several years. Although Part Three was originally planned to be the end of the book, ending with a strong climax , Nietzsche subsequently decided to write an additional three parts; ultimately, however, he composed only the fourth part, which is viewed to constitute an intermezzo.

Nietzsche commented in Ecce Homo that for the completion of each part, "[t]en days sufficed; in no case, neither for the first nor for the third and last, did I require more.

The first three parts were first published separately, and were subsequently published in a single volume in The fourth part remained private after Nietzsche wrote it in ; a scant forty copies were all that were printed, apart from seven others that were distributed to Nietzsche's close friends.

In March , the four parts were finally reprinted as a single volume. Since then, the version most commonly produced has included all four parts.

The original text contains a great deal of word-play. For instance, words beginning with über 'over, above' and unter 'down, below' are often paired to emphasise the contrast, which is not always possible to bring out in translation, except by coinages.

An example is untergang lit. Nietzsche pairs this word with its opposite übergang 'over-going' , used to mean 'transition'.

Another example is übermensch 'overman' or 'superman' , discussed later in this article. The book chronicles the fictitious travels and speeches of Zarathustra.

Nietzsche is clearly portraying a "new" or "different" Zarathustra, one who turns traditional morality on its head. He goes on to characterize "what the name of Zarathustra means in my mouth, the mouth of the first immoralist:" [3].

For what constitutes the tremendous historical uniqueness of that Persian is just the opposite of this. Zarathustra was the first to consider the fight of good and evil the very wheel in the machinery of things: the transposition of morality into the metaphysical realm, as a force, cause, and end in itself, is his work.

Zarathustra has a simple characterisation and plot, [4] narrated sporadically throughout the text. It possesses a unique experimental style , one that is, for instance, evident in newly invented " dithyrambs " narrated or sung by Zarathustra.

Likewise, the separate Dionysian-Dithyrambs was written in autumn , and printed with the full volume in , as the corollaries of Zarathustra's "abundance.

Some speculate that Nietzsche intended to write about final acts of creation and destruction brought on by Zarathustra. However, the book lacks a finale to match such description; its actual ending focuses more on Zarathustra recognizing that his legacy is beginning to perpetuate, and consequently choosing to leave the higher men to their own devices in carrying his legacy forth.

Zarathustra also contains the famous dictum " God is dead ," which had appeared earlier in The Gay Science. The book embodies a number of innovative poetical and rhetorical methods of expression.

It serves as a parallel and supplement to the various philosophical ideas present in Nietzsche's body of work. He has, however, said that "among my writings my Zarathustra stands to my mind by itself.

With [ Thus Spoke Zarathustra ] I have given mankind the greatest present that has ever been made to it so far. This book, with a voice bridging centuries, is not only the highest book there is, the book that is truly characterized by the air of the heights—the whole fact of man lies beneath it at a tremendous distance—it is also the deepest , born out of the innermost wealth of truth, an inexhaustible well to which no pail descends without coming up again filled with gold and goodness.

Since many of the book's ideas are also present in his other works, Zarathustra is seen to have served as a precursor to his later philosophical thought.

With the book, Nietzsche embraced a distinct aesthetic assiduity. He later reformulated many of his ideas in Beyond Good and Evil and various other writings that he composed thereafter.

He continued to emphasize his philosophical concerns; generally, his intention was to show an alternative to repressive moral codes and to avert " nihilism " in all of its varied forms.

This incomplete project began with The Antichrist. A singular feature of Zarathustra , first presented in the prologue, is the designation of human beings as a transition between apes and the übermensch 'overman, superman'; or 'overhuman, superhuman'.

It is one of the many interconnecting, interdependent themes of the story, and is represented through several different metaphors , including, for example:.

The symbol of the Übermensch alludes to Nietzsche's notions of "self-mastery," " self-cultivation ," " self-direction ," and "self-overcoming.

I teach you the overman. Man is something that shall be overcome. What have you done to overcome him? All beings so far have created something beyond themselves; and do you want to be the ebb of this great flood and even go back to the beasts rather than overcome man?

What is the ape to man? A laughingstock or a painful embarrassment. And man shall be just that for the overman: a laughingstock or a painful embarrassment.

You have made your way from worm to man, and much in you is still worm. Once you were apes, and even now, too, man is more ape than any ape. Whoever is the wisest among you is also a mere conflict and cross between plant and ghost.

But do I bid you become ghosts or plants? Behold, I teach you the overman! The overman is the meaning of the earth.

Let your will say: the overman shall be the meaning of the earth! Their names are remarkably similar to words from the Indian Rigveda. Now it is reasonably certain that the language of the Rigveda was spoken in eastern Iran at some stage in the history of the second millennium BCE.

We may assume that Zarathustra opposed the old religion, which was to flourish in the Punjab. It was the duty of the believer to side with Ahuramazda, which was possible by avoiding lies, supporting the poor, several kinds of sacrifices, the cult of fire, et cetera.

Zarathustra warned the people that there would be a Last Judgment, where the friends of The Lie were to be condemned to Hell and the pious allowed to enter Heaven text.

The Enemy has ever fought with me [ There seem to have been some fights, and Zarathustra was forced to leave his country.

Not even his family wanted to assist him. Whither shall I go? Kinsman and friend turn from me; none is found, to conciliate, to give to me; still less the false-believing chiefs of the land.

This I know, Ahuramazda, why I am powerless: because my flocks are diminished and my followers are few. Therefore I cry to Thee: Lord, look upon it.

Finally, Zarathustra obtained asylum from a king named Hystaspes ; he may have ruled in Chorasmia or Aria. At his court, the prophet debated with the priests of Mithra; on an official gathering, they discussed thirty three questions, and Zarathustra's opinions prevailed.

Darius , when he seized power in , had to fight a usurper, Gaumata the Magian , who pretended to be Bardiya , the son of Cyrus the Great and brother of the king Cambyses.

One possible explanation of these events is that Gaumata had adopted Zoroastrianism, a doctrine that relied on the allegiance of the common people, and therefore destroyed temples or altars to deities of the nobility.

Darius, who owed his throne to the support of some noblemen, could not help favouring their cult, though he adopted Auramazda as a means of unifying his empire.

Xerxes , successor to Darius, mentioned in one of his inscriptions how at a certain unnamed place he substituted the worship of Auramazda for that of the daiva s, which does not mean that he opposed the daeva cult as such, as a true Zoroastrian would have done, but only that he eradicated somewhere—probably in Babylon—the cult of deities alien to the religion of the ahura s.

At Susa , for instance, which had been one of the capital cities of the Achaemenids but where the religion of Auramazda was not indigenous , the coinage of the Seleucid and Arsacid periods does not represent a single Iranian deity.

Then the Iranian religion gradually emerged again. The first proof of the use of a Zoroastrian calendar , implying the official recognition of Zoroastrianism, is found some 40 years earlier at Nisa near modern Ashgabat in Turkmenistan.

By then some form of orthodoxy must have been established in which Auramazda and the entities powers surrounding him adjoin other gods such as Mithra, the Sun, and the Moon.

The coins seem to indicate, in not showing the fire altar, that the prince had lost interest in the Iranian religion. Article Media.

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The Cypress of Kashmar is a mythical cypress tree of legendary beauty and gargantuan dimensions. It is said to have sprung from a branch brought by Zoroaster from Paradise and to have stood in today's Kashmar in northeastern Iran and to have been planted by Zoroaster in honor of the conversion of King Vishtaspa to Zoroastrianism.

According to the Iranian physicist and historian Zakariya al-Qazwini King Vishtaspa had been a patron of Zoroaster who planted the tree himself.

Before, he wanted the tree to be reconstructed before his eyes. This was done in spite of protests by the Iranians, who offered a very great sum of money to save the tree.

Al-Mutawakkil never saw the cypress, because he was murdered by a Turkish soldier possibly in the employ of his son on the night when it arrived on the banks of the Tigris.

A number of parallels have been drawn between Zoroastrian teachings and Islam. Such parallels include the evident similarities between Amesha Spenta and the archangel Gabriel , praying five times a day, covering one's head during prayer, and the mention of Thamud and Iram of the Pillars in the Quran.

These may also indicate the vast influence of the Achaemenid Empire on the development of either religion. The Sabaeans , who believed in free will coincident with Zoroastrians, are also mentioned in the Quran.

Like the Greeks of classical antiquity, Islamic tradition understands Zoroaster to be the founding prophet of the Magians via Aramaic, Arabic Majus , collective Majusya.

The 11th-century Cordoban Ibn Hazm Zahiri school contends that Kitabi "of the Book" cannot apply in light of the Zoroastrian assertion that their books were destroyed by Alexander.

Citing the authority of the 8th-century al-Kalbi , the 9th- and 10th-century Sunni historian al-Tabari I, [66] reports that Zaradusht bin Isfiman an Arabic adaptation of "Zarathustra Spitama" was an inhabitant of Israel and a servant of one of the disciples of the prophet Jeremiah.

According to this tale, Zaradusht defrauded his master, who cursed him, causing him to become leprous cf. Elisha 's servant Gehazi in Jewish Scripture.

The apostate Zaradusht then eventually made his way to Balkh present day Afghanistan where he converted Bishtasb i. Vishtaspa , who in turn compelled his subjects to adopt the religion of the Magians.

Upon their arrival, Zaradusht translated the sage's Hebrew teachings for the king and so convinced him to convert Tabari also notes that they had previously been Sabi s to the Magian religion.

The 12th-century heresiographer al-Shahrastani describes the Majusiya into three sects, the Kayumarthiya , the Zurwaniya and the Zaradushtiya , among which Al-Shahrastani asserts that only the last of the three were properly followers of Zoroaster.

As regards the recognition of a prophet, Zoroaster has said: "They ask you as to how should they recognize a prophet and believe him to be true in what he says; tell them what he knows the others do not, and he shall tell you even what lies hidden in your nature; he shall be able to tell you whatever you ask him and he shall perform such things which others cannot perform.

Thus they accorded the same treatment to the Zoroastrian people which they did to other "People of the Book".

Though the name of Zoroaster is not mentioned in the Qur'an, still he was regarded as one of those prophets whose names have not been mentioned in the Qur'an, for there is a verse in the Qur'an: "And We did send apostles before thee: there are some of them that We have mentioned to thee and there are others whom We have not mentioned to Thee.

Accordingly, the Muslims treated the founder of Zoroastrianism as a true prophet and believed in his religion as they did in other inspired creeds, and thus according to the prophecy, protected the Zoroastrian religion.

James Darmesteter remarked in the translation of Zend Avesta : "When Islam assimilated the Zoroastrians to the People of the Book, it evinced a rare historical sense and solved the problem of the origin of the Avesta.

The Ahmadiyya Community views Zoroaster as a Prophet of Allah and describe the expressions of the all-good Ahura Mazda and evil Ahriman as merely referring to the coexistence of forces of good and evil enabling humans to exercise free will.

Manichaeism considered Zoroaster to be a figure along with the Buddha and Jesus in a line of prophets of which Mani — was the culmination. Elements of Zoroastrian philosophy entered the West through their influence on Judaism and Platonism and have been identified as one of the key early events in the development of philosophy.

In , the Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy ranked Zarathustra as first in the chronology of philosophers. The encyclopedia Natural History Pliny claims that Zoroastrians later educated the Greeks who, starting with Pythagoras , used a similar term, philosophy, or "love of wisdom" to describe the search for ultimate truth.

Zoroaster emphasized the freedom of the individual to choose right or wrong and individual responsibility for one's deeds. For Zoroaster, by thinking good thoughts, saying good words, and doing good deeds e.

Thus, we are not the slaves or servants of Ahura Mazda, but we can make a personal choice to be co-workers, thereby perfecting the world as saoshyants "world-perfecters" and ourselves and eventually achieve the status of an Ashavan "master of Asha".

Although a few recent depictions of Zoroaster show him performing some deed of legend, in general the portrayals merely present him in white vestments which are also worn by present-day Zoroastrian priests.

He often is seen holding a baresman Avestan; Middle Persian barsom , which is generally considered to be another symbol of priesthood, or with a book in hand, which may be interpreted to be the Avesta.

Alternatively, he appears with a mace, the varza —usually stylized as a steel rod crowned by a bull's head—that priests carry in their installation ceremony.

In other depictions he appears with a raised hand and thoughtfully lifted finger, as if to make a point. Zoroaster is rarely depicted as looking directly at the viewer; instead, he appears to be looking slightly upwards, as if beseeching.

Zoroaster is almost always depicted with a beard, this along with other factors bearing similarities to 19th-century portraits of Jesus.

A common variant of the Zoroaster images derives from a Sassanid-era rock-face carving. The figure is standing on a lotus, with a baresman in hand and with a gloriole around his head.

Until the s, this figure was commonly thought to be a depiction of Zoroaster, but in recent years is more commonly interpreted to be a depiction of Mithra.

Among the most famous of the European depictions of Zoroaster is that of the figure in Raphael 's The School of Athens. In it, Zoroaster and Ptolemy are having a discussion in the lower right corner.

The prophet is holding a star-studded globe. An image of Zoroaster on mirrored etched glass at the Zoroastrian fire temple in Taft , Iran.

The Greeks—in the Hellenistic sense of the term—had an understanding of Zoroaster as expressed by Plutarch , Diogenes Laertius , and Agathias [80] that saw him, at the core, to be the "prophet and founder of the religion of the Iranian peoples," Beck notes that "the rest was mostly fantasy".

Deriving from that image, and reinforcing it, was a "mass of literature" attributed to him and that circulated the Mediterranean world from the 3rd century BCE to the end of antiquity and beyond.

The language of that literature was predominantly Greek , though at one stage or another various parts of it passed through Aramaic , Syriac , Coptic or Latin.

Its ethos and cultural matrix was likewise Hellenistic, and "the ascription of literature to sources beyond that political, cultural and temporal framework represents a bid for authority and a fount of legitimizing "alien wisdom".

Zoroaster and the magi did not compose it, but their names sanctioned it. Among the named works attributed to "Zoroaster" is a treatise On Nature Peri physeos , which appears to have originally constituted four volumes i.

The framework is a retelling of Plato's Myth of Er , with Zoroaster taking the place of the original hero.

While Porphyry imagined Pythagoras listening to Zoroaster's discourse, On Nature has the sun in middle position, which was how it was understood in the 3rd century.

In contrast, Plato's 4th-century BCE version had the sun in second place above the moon. Colotes accused Plato of plagiarizing Zoroaster, [86] [87] and Heraclides Ponticus wrote a text titled Zoroaster based on his perception of "Zoroastrian" philosophy, in order to express his disagreement with Plato on natural philosophy.

Pliny the Elder names Zoroaster as the inventor of magic Natural History Association with astrology according to Roger Beck, were based on his Babylonian origin, and Zoroaster's Greek name was identified at first with star-worshiping astrothytes "star sacrificer" and, with the Zo- , even as the living star.

Almost all Zoroastrian pseudepigrapha is now lost, and of the attested texts—with only one exception—only fragments have survived.

Pliny's 2nd- or 3rd-century attribution of "two million lines" to Zoroaster suggest that even if exaggeration and duplicates are taken into consideration a formidable pseudepigraphic corpus once existed at the Library of Alexandria.

This corpus can safely be assumed to be pseudepigrapha because no one before Pliny refers to literature by "Zoroaster", [97] and on the authority of the 2nd-century Galen of Pergamon and from a 6th-century commentator on Aristotle it is known that the acquisition policies of well-endowed royal libraries created a market for fabricating manuscripts of famous and ancient authors.

The exception to the fragmentary evidence i. A three-line cryptogram in the colophones following the page treatise identify the work as "words of truth of Zostrianos.

God of Truth [ logos ]. Words of Zoroaster. Another work circulating under the name of "Zoroaster" was the Asteroskopita or Apotelesmatika , and which ran to five volumes i.

The title and fragments suggest that it was an astrological handbook, "albeit a very varied one, for the making of predictions. These pseudepigraphic texts aside, some authors did draw on a few genuinely Zoroastrian ideas.

The Oracles of Hystaspes , by " Hystaspes ", another prominent magian pseudo-author, is a set of prophecies distinguished from other Zoroastrian pseudepigrapha in that it draws on real Zoroastrian sources.

He used to call the one Horomazes and the other Areimanius ". Zoroaster was known as a sage, magician, and miracle-worker in post-Classical Western culture.

The earliest recorded references to Zoroaster in English literature occur in the writings of the physician-philosopher Sir Thomas Browne who asserted in his Religio Medici In his The Garden of Cyrus Browne's study of comparative religion led him to speculate-.

The Oxford English Dictionary attributes the English poet Lord Byron as the first to allude to the Zoroastrian religion in when stating-.

During the Enlightenment writers such as Voltaire promoted research into Zoroastrianism in the belief that it was a form of rational Deism , preferable to Christianity.

An early 19th-century representation of Zoroaster derived from the portrait of a figure that appears in a 4th-century sculpture at Taq-e Bostan in south-western Iran.

In his seminal work Also sprach Zarathustra Thus Spoke Zarathustra the philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche uses the native Iranian name Zarathustra which has a significant meaning [f] as he had used the familiar Greek-Latin name in his earlier works.

The Austrian composer Richard Strauss 's large-scale tone-poem Also sprach Zarathustra was inspired by Nietzsche's book.

Irish poet William Butler Yeats — and his wife reportedly claimed to have contacted Zoroaster through " automatic writing ".

The protagonist and narrator of Gore Vidal 's novel Creation is described to be the grandson of Zoroaster. It has been suggested that this "traditional date" is an adoption of some date from foreign sources, from the Greeks [] or the Babylonians [] for example, which the priesthood then reinterpreted.

A simpler explanation is that the priests subtracted 42 the age at which Zoroaster is said to have converted Vistaspa from the round figure of From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Founder of Zoroastrianism. For other uses, see Zoroaster disambiguation. For other uses, see Zarathustra disambiguation. The original is now believed to be either a representation of Mithra or Hvare-khshaeta.

Atar fire , a primary symbol of Zoroastrianism. Primary topics. Divine entities. Scripture and worship. Accounts and legends.

History and culture. Related topics. Zarathustra was born in Bactria or Aria as the son of a not very powerful nobleman named Purushaspa and a woman named Dughdhova.

Zarathustra was the third of five brothers. He became a priest and seems to have showed a remarkable care for humans and cattle. The family is often called Spitama , which is a honorary title meaning 'most beneficient', but was later taken for a family name.

Zarathustra's life changed when the god Ahuramazda granted him a vision. A spirit named Good Thought appeared and ordered Zarathustra to oppose the bloody sacrifices of the traditional Iranian cults and to give aid to the poor.

In one of his own compositions, Zarathustra says:. And whose is thine allegiance? Then I answered: 'Zarathustra am I; to the false believers a forthright enemy, but to the righteous a mighty help and joy.

Zarathustra started to preach that there was a supreme god, the "wise lord" Ahuramazda, who had created the world, mankind and all good things in it through his holy spirit, Spenta Mainyu.

The rest of the universe was created by six other spirits, the Amesha Spentas 'holy immortals'. However, the order of this sevenfold creation was threatened by The Lie; good and evil spirits were fighting and mankind had to support the good spirits in order to speed up the inevitable victory of the good.

A remarkable aspect of Zarathustra's teaching is that he employs special words to describe the demons. Their names are remarkably similar to words from the Indian Rigveda.

Now it is reasonably certain that the language of the Rigveda was spoken in eastern Iran at some stage in the history of the second millennium BCE.

We may assume that Zarathustra opposed the old religion, which was to flourish in the Punjab. It was the duty of the believer to side with Ahuramazda, which was possible by avoiding lies, supporting the poor, several kinds of sacrifices, the cult of fire, et cetera.

Zarathustra warned the people that there would be a Last Judgment, where the friends of The Lie were to be condemned to Hell and the pious allowed to enter Heaven text.

The Enemy has ever fought with me [ There seem to have been some fights, and Zarathustra was forced to leave his country.

Not even his family wanted to assist him. Whither shall I go?

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