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The coalition forces proceeded with a bombing campaign targeting military targets [80] [81] [82] and then launched a hour-long ground assault against Iraqi forces in Southern Iraq and those occupying Kuwait.

Iraq's armed forces were devastated during the war. Shortly after it ended in , Shia and Kurdish Iraqis led several uprisings against Saddam Hussein's regime, but these were successfully repressed using the Iraqi security forces and chemical weapons.

It is estimated that as many as , people, including many civilians were killed. Iraq was ordered to destroy its chemical and biological weapons and the UN attempted to compel Saddam's government to disarm and agree to a ceasefire by imposing additional sanctions on the country in addition to the initial sanctions imposed following Iraq's invasion of Kuwait.

The Iraqi Government's failure to disarm and agree to a ceasefire resulted in sanctions which remained in place until The effects of the sanctions on the civilian population of Iraq have been disputed.

On 20 March , a United States-organized coalition invaded Iraq , under the pretext that Iraq had failed to abandon its weapons of mass destruction program in violation of UN Resolution This claim was based on documents provided by the CIA and the British government that were later found to be unreliable.

In May L. An insurgency against the US-led coalition -rule of Iraq began in summer within elements of the former Iraqi secret police and army, who formed guerrilla units.

In fall , self-entitled ' jihadist ' groups began targeting coalition forces. The insurgency included intense inter-ethnic violence between Sunnis and Shias.

In January , the first elections since the invasion took place and in October a new Constitution was approved, which was followed by parliamentary elections in December.

However, insurgent attacks were common and increased to 34, in from 26, in During , fighting continued and reached its highest levels of violence, more war crimes scandals were made public, Abu Musab al-Zarqawi the leader of Al-Qaeda in Iraq was killed by US forces and Iraq's former dictator Saddam Hussein was sentenced to death for crimes against humanity and hanged.

Bush announced a "Surge" in the number of US troops deployed to the country. In May , Iraq's Parliament called on the United States to set a timetable for withdrawal and US coalition partners such as the UK and Denmark began withdrawing their forces from the country.

In , fighting continued and Iraq's newly trained armed forces launched attacks against militants. US troops handed over security duties to Iraqi forces in June , though they continued to work with Iraqi forces after the pullout.

Following the withdrawal of US troops in , the insurgency continued and Iraq suffered from political instability. In February , the Arab Spring protests spread to Iraq ; [] but the initial protests did not topple the government.

The Iraqi National Movement , reportedly representing the majority of Iraqi Sunnis, boycotted Parliament for several weeks in late and early , claiming that the Shiite-dominated government was striving to sideline Sunnis.

In and , levels of violence increased and armed groups inside Iraq were increasingly galvanised by the Syrian Civil War.

Both Sunnis and Shias crossed the border to fight in Syria. During , Sunni militant groups stepped up attacks targeting the Iraq's Shia population in an attempt to undermine confidence in the Nouri al-Maliki -led government.

The US government welcomed this as "another major step forward" in uniting Iraq. In response to rapid territorial gains made by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant ISIL during the first half of , and its universally-condemned executions and reported human rights abuses , many states began to intervene against it in the Iraqi Civil War — In September , a referendum was held regarding Kurdish independence in Iraq.

Serious civil unrest rocked the country beginning in Baghdad and Najaf in July and spreading to other provinces in late September as rallies to protest corruption, unemployment, and public service failures turned violent.

Protests and demonstrations started again on 1 October , against 16 years of corruption, unemployment and inefficient public services, before they escalated into calls to overthrow the administration and to stop Iranian intervention in Iraq.

The Iraqi government at times reacted harshly, resulting in over deaths by 12 December The U. On 29 December , the United States bombed five Kata'ib Hezbollah militia's positions in Iraq and Syria , in retaliation for the presumed Kata'ib attack of 27 December.

According to Iraqi sources, at least 25 militia fighters were killed. On 31 December , after a funeral for Kata'ib Hezbollah militiamen killed by U.

Demonstrators smashed a door of the checkpoint, set fire to the reception area, left anti-American posters and sprayed anti-American graffiti.

Following months of protests that broke out across Iraq in October and the resignation of Prime Minister Adel Abdul Mahdi and his cabinet, Mustafa Al Kadhimi became a leading contender for the Premiership.

On 9 April , he was named by President Barham Salih as prime minister-designate , the third person tapped to lead the country in just 10 weeks as it struggled to replace a government that fell last year after months of protests.

Kadhimi was nominated by President Barham Salih, state television reported, shortly after the previous designated prime minister , Adnan al-Zurfi , announced he was withdrawing having failed to secure enough support to pass a government.

It is comparable in size to the US state of California , and somewhat larger than Paraguay. Most of Iraq has a hot arid climate with subtropical influence.

Rainfall during the summer is extremely rare, except in the far north of the country. The northern mountainous regions have cold winters with occasional heavy snows, sometimes causing extensive flooding.

The federal government of Iraq is defined under the current Constitution as a democratic , federal parliamentary republic. The federal government is composed of the executive , legislative , and judicial branches, as well as numerous independent commissions.

Aside from the federal government, there are regions made of one or more governorates , governorates, and districts within Iraq with jurisdiction over various matters as defined by law.

The party has a more consistent anti-sectarian perspective than most of its rivals. Both parties are secular and enjoy close ties with the West.

In , according to the Failed States Index , Iraq was the world's eleventh most politically unstable country.

He announced on 14 August that he would stand aside so that Haider Al-Abadi , who had been nominated just days earlier by newly installed President Fuad Masum , could take over.

Until that point, al-Maliki had clung to power even asking the federal court to veto the president's nomination describing it as a violation of the constitution.

Transparency International ranks Iraq's government as the eighth-most-corrupt government in the world. Government payroll have increased from 1 million employees under Saddam Hussein to around 7 million employees in Since the establishment of the no—fly zones following the Gulf War of —, the Kurds established their own autonomous region.

Under the terms of the constitution, the country conducted fresh nationwide parliamentary elections on 15 December All three major ethnic groups in Iraq voted along ethnic lines, as did Assyrian and Turcoman minorities.

Law no. In Iraq introduced Sharia punishment for certain types of criminal offences. In , the CPA chief executive L.

Paul Bremer said he would veto any constitutional draft stating that sharia is the principal basis of law. The Iraqi Penal Code is the statutory law of Iraq.

The Peshmerga are a separate armed force loyal to the Kurdistan Regional Government. The regional government and the central government disagree as to whether they are under Baghdad's authority and to what extent.

The Iraqi Army is an objective counter-insurgency force that as of November includes 14 divisions, each division consisting of 4 brigades.

The Iraqi Air Force is designed to support ground forces with surveillance, reconnaissance and troop lift. Two reconnaissance squadrons use light aircraft, three helicopter squadrons are used to move troops and one air transportation squadron uses C transport aircraft to move troops, equipment, and supplies.

It currently has 3, personnel. It is planned to increase to 18, personnel, with aircraft by The Iraqi Navy is a small force with 1, sailors and officers, including Marines , designed to protect shoreline and inland waterways from insurgent infiltration.

The navy is also responsible for the security of offshore oil platforms. The navy will have coastal patrol squadrons, assault boat squadrons and a marine battalion.

In , U. Deputy Secretary of Defense Michael Mulroy said that the relationship with the Defense Department and the Iraqi Army was among our most compelling strategic interests and that the U.

Under the provisions of this treaty , Iraq is considered a party with declared stockpiles of chemical weapons. Because of their late accession, Iraq is the only State Party exempt from the existing timeline for destruction of their chemical weapons.

Specific criteria is in development to address the unique nature of Iraqi accession. Iran—Iraq relations have flourished since by the exchange of high level visits: Iraqi PM Nouri al-Maliki made frequent visits to Iran, along with Jalal Talabani visiting numerous times, to help boost bilateral co-operation in all fields.

On 5 January , the Iraqi parliament voted for a resolution that urges the government to work on expelling U. The resolution was passed two days after a U.

The resolution specifically calls for ending of a agreement allowing Washington to help Iraq against Islamic State groups by sending troops.

Relations between Iraq and its Kurdish population have been sour in recent history, especially with Saddam Hussein's genocidal campaign against them in the s.

After uprisings during the early 90s , many Kurds fled their homeland and no-fly zones were established in northern Iraq to prevent more conflicts.

Despite historically poor relations, some progress has been made, and Iraq elected its first Kurdish president, Jalal Talabani , in Furthermore, Kurdish is now an official language of Iraq alongside Arabic according to Article 4 of the constitution.

LGBT rights in Iraq remain limited. Although decriminalised , homosexuality remains stigmatised in Iraqi society. People who dress in emo style are mistakenly associated with homosexuality and may suffer the same fate.

On May 14, , Human Rights Watch said that Iraqi government should focus on the key areas to advance human rights in the country through a legislation.

Several areas need a legislative reform to bring Iraqi law in line with international standards. Prime Minister of Iraq Mustafa Al-Kadhimi has a unique opportunity to tackle over a decade of free speech restrictions and should reform its penal code and other laws.

Kurdistan Region Erbil , Dohuk , Sulaymaniyah and Halabja is the only legally defined region within Iraq, with its own government and quasi-official army Peshmerga.

Prior to US occupation, Iraq's centrally planned economy prohibited foreign ownership of Iraqi businesses, ran most large industries as state-owned enterprises, and imposed large tariffs to keep out foreign goods.

In February , Citigroup included Iraq in a group of countries which it described as 'Global Growth Generators' , that it argued will enjoy significant economic growth in the future.

The official currency in Iraq is the Iraqi dinar. The Coalition Provisional Authority issued new dinar coins and notes, with the notes printed by De La Rue using modern anti-forgery techniques.

Five years after the invasion, an estimated 2. According to the Overseas Development Institute , international NGOs face challenges in carrying out their mission, leaving their assistance "piecemeal and largely conducted undercover, hindered by insecurity, a lack of coordinated funding, limited operational capacity and patchy information".

With its During the s Iraq produced up to 3. The sanctions were lifted in after the US-led invasion removed Saddam Hussein from power, but development of Iraq's oil resources has been hampered by the ongoing conflict.

As of [update] , despite improved security and billions of dollars in oil revenue, Iraq still generates about half the electricity that customers demand, leading to protests during the hot summer months.

The Iraq oil law , a proposed piece of legislation submitted to the Council of Representatives of Iraq in , has failed to gain approval due to disagreements among Iraq's various political blocs.

Several United States senators had also criticised the deal, arguing it was hindering efforts to pass the hydrocarbon law.

On 30 June and 11 December , the Iraqi ministry of oil awarded service contracts to international oil companies for some of Iraq's many oil fields.

On 14 March , the International Energy Agency said Iraq's oil output jumped by half a million barrels a day in February to average 3.

The country had not pumped that much oil since , when Saddam Hussein rose to power. Baghdad condemned the seizure and threatened "dire consequences" if the fields were not returned.

Water supply and sanitation in Iraq is characterized by poor water and service quality. Three decades of war, combined with limited environmental awareness, have destroyed Iraq's water resources management system.

Access to potable water differs significantly among governorates and between urban and rural areas. Although many infrastructure projects are underway, Iraq remains in deep housing crisis, with the war-ravaged country likely to complete only 5 percent of the 2.

The estimate of the total Iraqi population is 38,, Around 20, Marsh Arabs live in southern Iraq. Iraq has a community of 2, Chechens.

Prior to the invasion in , Arabic was the sole official language. According to the Iraqi constitution :.

The Arabic language and the Kurdish language are the two official languages of Iraq. The right of Iraqis to educate their children in their mother tongue, such as Turkmen, Assyrian, and Armenian shall be guaranteed in government educational institutions in accordance with educational guidelines, or in any other language in private educational institutions.

The Sunni population complains of facing discrimination in almost all aspects of life by the government. However, former Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki denied that such discrimination occurs.

Christianity in Iraq has its roots from the conception of the Church of the East in the 5th century AD, predating the existence of Islam in the region.

There is also a significant population of Armenian Christians in Iraq who had fled Turkey during the Armenian genocide. Christians numbered over 1.

There are also small ethno-religious minority populations of Mandaeans , Shabaks , Yarsan and Yezidis remaining. Prior to their numbers together may have been 2 million, the majority Yarsan, a non-Islamic religion with roots in pre-Islamic and pre-Christian religion.

There are reports of over The Iraqi Jewish community, numbering around , in , has almost entirely left the country. Iraq is home to two of the world's holiest places among Shias: Najaf and Karbala.

The dispersion of native Iraqis to other countries is known as the Iraqi diaspora. The UN High Commission for Refugees has estimated that nearly two million Iraqis fled the country after the multinational invasion of Iraq in , mostly to Syria and Jordan.

As of [update] , nearly 3 million Iraqis had been displaced, with 1. After the start of the Syrian Civil War in , numerous Iraqi refugees in Syria returned to their native country.

In , spending on healthcare accounted for 6. In , there were 6. Iraq had developed a centralised free health care system in the s using a hospital based, capital-intensive model of curative care.

Unlike other poorer countries, which focused on mass health care using primary care practitioners, Iraq developed a Westernized system of sophisticated hospitals with advanced medical procedures, provided by specialist physicians.

Before Iraq faced economic sanctions from the UN, it already had an advanced and successful Arab education system. At the turn of the millennium, many countries, including Iraq, attempted to take part in the Millennium Development Goals as a way to help underdeveloped countries prosper.

In Iraq, one of the goals was for education to be universally available for both boys and girls at the primary level. In general, the education of Iraq has been improving since the MDGs were implemented.

However, the dramatic increase of the number of students in primary education has had some negative and straining effects for the education system.

At the same time, UNICEF investigated portions of spending for education and found that some of the money has gone to waste.

Many of those people who dropout or have to repeat a grade do not see the economic cost for long term results.

Other statistics show that regional differences can attribute to lower or higher enrollment rates for children in primary education. There are also the differing enrollment rates between boys and girls.

Although the numbers suggest a dramatic increase of enrollment rates for primary education in total, a large number of children still remain out of the education system.

About , of internally displaced children are not in the education system. With the overall increase of enrollment rates, there continues to be a large strain on the resources for education.

Education is mandatory only through to the sixth grade, after which a national examination determines the possibility of continuing into the upper grades.

In , obstacles to further reform were poor security conditions in many areas, a centralised system that lacked accountability for teachers and administrators, and the isolation in which the system functioned for the previous 30 years.

According to the Webometrics Ranking of World Universities , the top-ranking universities in the country are the University of Dohuk th worldwide , the University of Baghdad th and Babylon University th.

Iraq is known primarily for its rich maqam heritage which has been passed down orally by the masters of the maqam in an unbroken chain of transmission leading up to the present.

The maqam al-Iraqi is considered to be the most noble and perfect form of maqam. Al-maqam al-Iraqi is the collection of sung poems written either in one of the sixteen meters of classical Arabic or in Iraqi dialect Zuhayri.

Early in the 20th century, many of the most prominent musicians in Iraq were Jewish. At the nightclubs of Baghdad, ensembles consisted of oud, qanun and two percussionists, while the same format with a ney and cello were used on the radio.

The most famous early composer from Iraq was Ezra Aharon , an oud player, while the most prominent instrumentalist was Daoud Al-Kuwaiti.

Important cultural institutions in the capital include the Iraqi National Symphony Orchestra — rehearsals and performances were briefly interrupted during the Occupation of Iraq but have since returned to normal.

The National Theatre of Iraq was looted during the invasion, but efforts are underway to restore it. The live theatre scene received a boost during the s when UN sanctions limited the import of foreign films.

As many as 30 cinemas were reported to have been converted to live stages, producing a wide range of comedies and dramatic productions. Baghdad also features a number of museums including the National Museum of Iraq — which houses the world's largest and finest collection of artefacts and relics of Ancient Iraqi civilisations; some of which were stolen during the Occupation of Iraq.

The capital, Ninus or Nineveh , was taken by the Medes under Cyaxares , and some years after Xenophon passed over its site, then mere mounds of earth.

It remained buried until , when Botta and Layard discovered the ruins of the Assyrian cities. In these cities are found fragments of several great buildings which seem to have been palace-temples.

They were constructed chiefly of sun-dried bricks , and all that remains of them is the lower part of the walls, decorated with sculpture and paintings, portions of the pavements, a few indications of the elevation, and some interesting works connected with the drainage.

After the end of the full state control in , there were a period of significant growth in the broadcast media in Iraq.

Immediately, and the ban on satellite dishes is no longer in place, and by mid, according to a BBC report, there were 20 radio stations from 0.

Significantly, there have been many of these newspapers in numbers disproportionate to the population of their locations.

For example, in Najaf , which has a population of ,, is being published more than 30 newspapers and distributed.

Iraqi media expert and author of a number of reports on this subject, Ibrahim Al Marashi, identifies four stages of the US invasion of Iraq in where they had been taking the steps that have significant effects on the way for the later of the Iraqi media since then.

Stages are: pre-invasion preparation, and the war and the actual choice of targets, the first post-war period, and a growing insurgency and hand over power to the Iraqi Interim Government IIG and Prime Minister Iyad Allawi.

Iraqi cuisine can be traced back some 10, years — to the Sumerians , Akkadians , Babylonians , Assyrians and Ancient Persians.

Some characteristic ingredients of Iraqi cuisine include — vegetables such as aubergine , tomato , okra , onion , potato , courgette , garlic , peppers and chilli , cereals such as rice , bulgur wheat and barley , pulses and legumes such as lentils , chickpeas and cannellini , fruits such as dates , raisins , apricots , figs , grapes , melon , pomegranate and citrus fruits , especially lemon and lime.

Similarly with other countries of Western Asia , chicken and especially lamb are the favourite meats. Most dishes are served with rice — usually Basmati , grown in the marshes of southern Iraq.

Football is the most popular sport in Iraq. Football is a considerable uniting factor in Iraq following years of war and unrest.

Basketball , swimming , weightlifting , bodybuilding , boxing , kick boxing and tennis are also popular sports. Despite having mobile phones in the Middle East since , Iraqis were only able to use mobile phones after , as Mobile phones were banned under Saddam Hussein 's rule.

According to the Iraqi Ministry of Communication, Iraq is now in the second phase of building and launching a multipurpose strategic satellite.

On 18 January , Iraq was connected to the undersea communications network for the first time. In October , the Iraqi Minister for Communication ordered internet prices to be lowered by a third.

This is an attempt to boost usage and comes as a result of significant improvements in Internet infrastructure in the country.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the country in Western Asia. For other uses, see Iraq disambiguation. Country in the Middle East.

Arabic Kurdish [1]. Turkish Assyrian Armenian. Constitution of Iraq, Article 4 1st. Main article: History of Iraq. Main article: History of Mesopotamia.

This section relies largely or entirely on a single source. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page.

Please help improve this article by introducing citations to additional sources. Main articles: Ottoman Iraq and Mamluk dynasty of Iraq. Main articles: Mandatory Iraq and Kingdom of Iraq.

See also: Iraqi Civil War — , American-led intervention in Iraq —present , Iraqi—Kurdish conflict , and Iraqi insurgency —present.

Main articles: Geography of Iraq and Governorates of Iraq. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. June Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: Politics of Iraq.

Main article: Law of Iraq. Main article: Iraqi Armed Forces. Controlled by Iraqi government. Controlled by Iraqi Kurds. Main article: Foreign relations of Iraq.

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. June Main article: Human rights in Iraq. Main article: Governorates of Iraq.

Main article: Economy of Iraq. Main articles: Oil reserves in Iraq and Energy in Iraq. Main article: Water supply and sanitation in Iraq.

See also: Demographics of Iraq. Main article: Languages of Iraq. Play media. Main article: List of cities in Iraq. Largest cities or towns in Iraq According to the Estimate [].

Religion in Iraq, [] Shia Islam. Main articles: Refugees of Iraq and Assyrian exodus from Iraq.

Main article: Health in Iraq. Main article: Education in Iraq. This section needs additional citations for verification.

Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. October Learn how and when to remove this template message.

Main article: Culture of Iraq. See also: Tourism in Iraq. Main article: Music of Iraq. Main articles: Architecture of Mesopotamia and Iraqi art.

Main article: Media of Iraq. Main article: Iraqi cuisine. Main article: Sport in Iraq. Iraq portal Kurdistan portal Asia portal.

Constitute Project. Retrieved 31 August Retrieved 9 November International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 7 March Retrieved 17 August United Nations Development Programme.

Retrieved 14 December The World Factbook. Retrieved 23 March Retrieved 18 December The University of Chicago Press.

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A New Geographical and Historical Grammar. Sands, Murray, and Cochran. Retrieved 22 June London: W.

Economic Geography. Archived from the original on 14 March Retrieved 17 October Solecki, Rose L. Solecki, and Anagnostis P. Agelarakis Studies in the chronology and regional style of Old Babylonian Cylinder Seals.

Bibliotheca Mesopotamica, Volume Ancient History Encyclopedia. Retrieved 18 August Oxford University Press US. Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press.

BMC Evolutionary Biology. Historical Dictionary of Iraq. Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Press. Reading, England: Itahca Press.

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LIT Verlag Münster. Retrieved 17 June A History of Iraq. Cambridge University Press. Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World.

Oxford University Press. Stroud: Sutton. The exploits of T. Lawrence as British liaison officer in the Arab Revolt, recounted in his work Seven Pillars of Wisdom, made him one of the most famous Englishmen of his generation.

This biography explores his life and career including his correspondence with writers, artists and politicians. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography.

Palgrave Macmillan. Sunni control over the levels of power and the distribution of the spoils of office has had predictable consequences- a simmering resentment on the part of the Shi'a The New York Times.

A History of the Modern Middle East. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. The Iran—Iraq War, — Oxford, Oxfordshire: Osprey Publishing. BBC News. United Nations.

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Archived from the original on 28 October Agence France-Presse. Archived from the original on 1 January Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Valentine's Day Massacre".

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The court can only request they be stopped. This means that the couple are not safe because Swedish authorities believe it is safe to return them, their removal has only been stayed and it remains unclear whether Sweden will defy the ECHR or the court's ruling will expire.

UNHCR believes that new flights are being organised. It was not questioned that they were in fact lesbian, but the migrations office and the migrations court considered the situation in [Northern Iraq] the Kurdish areas to be safe, as long as one lived discrete there.

It is common as we reported on Sunday , looking at a new report on the state of LGBT Asylum in the EU, for countries to hold that LGBT asylum seekers can 'tolerate' living repressed lives amidst fear of discovery and therefore it is safe to return them.

It was this approach which the British Supreme Court overturned in July. However, despite denials, evidence from Iraq shows that honour killings in the Kurdish North are common, may be increasing, and the couple are under specific threat.

Pari's family is powerful and connected to the government. When she refused to be married off to a relative and confessed that she loved a woman death sentences were issued by her clan.

Dilsa says her brother has already been murdered for helping her to flee. No 'discretion' will save them. Human Rights Watch has said that Iraqi security forces have targeted gays and lesbians.

How you can support Pari and Dilsa Pari and Dilsa's lawyer is urging concerned people to write to the Swedish Migration Board at migrationsverket migrationsverket.

Editable letter Foreign supporters can also contact their local Swedish Embassy.

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By the middle of the eighteenth century BC, the Sumerians had lost their cultural identity and ceased to exist as a distinct people. It is from the period of Hammurabi that southern Iraq came to be known as Babylonia , while the north had already coalesced into Assyria hundreds of years before.

However, his empire was short-lived, and rapidly collapsed after his death, with both Assyria and southern Iraq, in the form of the Sealand Dynasty , falling back into native Akkadian hands.

The foreign Amorites clung on to power in a once more weak and small Babylonia until it was sacked by the Indo-European speaking Hittite Empire based in Anatolia in BC.

After this, another foreign people, the Language Isolate speaking Kassites , originating in the Zagros Mountains of Ancient Iran , seized control of Babylonia, where they were to rule for almost years, by far the longest dynasty ever to rule in Babylon.

Iraq was from this point divided into three polities: Assyria in the north, Kassite Babylonia in the south central region, and the Sealand Dynasty in the far south.

Beginning with the campaigns of Ashur-uballit I , Assyria destroyed the rival Hurrian - Mitanni Empire, annexed huge swathes of the Hittite Empire for itself, annexed northern Babylonia from the Kassites, forced the Egyptian Empire from the region, and defeated the Elamites , Phrygians , Canaanites , Phoenicians , Cilicians , Gutians , Dilmunites and Arameans.

The Kassites were driven from power by Assyria and Elam, allowing native south Mesopotamian kings to rule Babylonia for the first time, although often subject to Assyrian or Elamite rulers.

However, these East Semitic Akkadian kings, were unable to prevent new waves of West Semitic migrants entering southern Iraq, and during the 11th century BC Arameans and Suteans entered Babylonia from The Levant , and these were followed in the late 10th to early 9th century BC by the migrant Chaldeans who were closely related to the earlier Arameans.

After a period of comparative decline in Assyria, it once more began to expand with the Neo Assyrian Empire — BC. It was during this period that an Akkadian influenced form of Eastern Aramaic was adopted by the Assyrians as the lingua franca of their vast empire, and Mesopotamian Aramaic began to supplant Akkadian as the spoken language of the general populace of both Assyria and Babylonia.

The descendant dialects of this tongue survive amongst the Mandaeans of southern Iraq and Assyrians of northern Iraq to this day. In the late 7th century BC, the Assyrian Empire tore itself apart with a series of brutal civil wars, weakening itself to such a degree that a coalition of its former subjects; the Babylonians , Chaldeans , Medes , Persians , Parthians , Scythians and Cimmerians , were able to attack Assyria, finally bringing its empire down by BC.

It failed to attain the size, power or longevity of its predecessor; however, it came to dominate The Levant , Canaan , Arabia , Israel and Judah , and to defeat Egypt.

Initially, Babylon was ruled by yet another foreign dynasty, that of the Chaldeans , who had migrated to the region in the late 10th or early 9th century BC.

Its greatest king, Nebuchadnezzar II , rivalled another non native ruler, the ethnically unrelated Amorite king Hammurabi , as the greatest king of Babylon.

However, by BC, the Chaldeans had been deposed from power by the Assyrian born Nabonidus and his son and regent Belshazzar.

The Achaemenids made Babylon their main capital. The Chaldeans and Chaldea disappeared at around this time, though both Assyria and Babylonia endured and thrived under Achaemenid rule see Achaemenid Assyria.

Little changed under the Persians, having spent three centuries under Assyrian rule, their kings saw themselves as successors to Ashurbanipal, and they retained Assyrian Imperial Aramaic as the language of empire, together with the Assyrian imperial infrastructure, and an Assyrian style of art and architecture.

In the late 4th century BC, Alexander the Great conquered the region, putting it under Hellenistic Seleucid rule for over two centuries. From Syria , the Romans invaded western parts of the region several times , briefly founding Assyria Provincia in Assyria.

Christianity began to take hold in Iraq particularly in Assyria between the 1st and 3rd centuries, and Assyria became a centre of Syriac Christianity , the Church of the East and Syriac literature.

A number of independent states evolved in the north during the Parthian era, such as Adiabene , Assur , Osroene and Hatra. During the s and 's AD, the Sassanids gradually conquered the independent states, culminating with Assur in AD.

The region was thus a province of the Sassanid Empire for over four centuries, and became the frontier and battle ground between the Sassanid Empire and Byzantine Empire , with both empires weakening each other, paving the way for the Arab - Muslim conquest of Persia in the mid-7th century.

Under the Rashidun Caliphate , the prophet Muhammad 's cousin and son-in-law, Ali , moved his capital to Kufa when he became the fourth caliph.

The Umayyad Caliphate ruled the province of Iraq from Damascus in the 7th century. The Abbasid Caliphate built the city of Baghdad along the Tigris in the 8th century as its capital, and the city became the leading metropolis of the Arab and Muslim world for five centuries.

Baghdad was the largest multicultural city of the Middle Ages , peaking at a population of more than a million, [45] and was the centre of learning during the Islamic Golden Age.

The Mongols destroyed the city and burned its library during the siege of Baghdad in the 13th century.

In , Hulagu Khan amassed an unusually large army, a significant portion of the Mongol Empire's forces, for the purpose of conquering Baghdad.

This angered Hulagu, and, consistent with Mongol strategy of discouraging resistance, he besieged Baghdad , sacked the city and massacred many of the inhabitants.

The Mongols destroyed the Abbasid Caliphate and Baghdad's House of Wisdom , which contained countless precious and historical documents.

The city has never regained its previous pre-eminence as a major centre of culture and influence. Some historians believe that the Mongol invasion destroyed much of the irrigation infrastructure that had sustained Mesopotamia for millennia.

Other historians point to soil salination as the culprit in the decline in agriculture. The midth-century Black Death ravaged much of the Islamic world.

After the capture of Baghdad, 20, of its citizens were massacred. During the late 14th and early 15th centuries, the Black Sheep Turkmen ruled the area now known as Iraq.

From the earliest 16th century, in , as with all territories of the former White Sheep Turkmen, Iraq fell into the hands of the Iranian Safavids.

Owing to the century long Turco-Iranian rivalry between the Safavids and the neighbouring Ottoman Turks , Iraq would be contested between the two for more than a hundred years during the frequent Ottoman-Persian Wars.

With the Treaty of Zuhab in , most of the territory of present-day Iraq eventually came under the control of Ottoman Empire as the eyalet of Baghdad as a result of wars with the neighbouring rival, Safavid Iran.

Throughout most of the period of Ottoman rule — , the territory of present-day Iraq was a battle zone between the rival regional empires and tribal alliances.

By the 17th century, the frequent conflicts with the Safavids had sapped the strength of the Ottoman Empire and had weakened its control over its provinces.

The nomadic population swelled with the influx of bedouins from Najd , in the Arabian Peninsula. Bedouin raids on settled areas became impossible to curb.

During the years —, Iraq was ruled by a Mamluk dynasty of Georgian [56] origin who succeeded in obtaining autonomy from the Ottoman Porte , suppressed tribal revolts, curbed the power of the Janissaries, restored order and introduced a programme of modernisation of economy and military.

In , the Ottomans managed to overthrow the Mamluk regime and imposed their direct control over Iraq. The population of Iraq, estimated at 30 million in AD, was only 5 million at the start of the 20th century.

In the Mesopotamian campaign against the Central Powers, British forces invaded the country and initially suffered a major defeat at the hands of the Turkish army during the Siege of Kut — However, subsequent to this the British began to gain the upper hand, and were further aided by the support of local Arabs and Assyrians.

An armistice was signed in The British lost 92, soldiers in the Mesopotamian campaign. Ottoman losses are unknown but the British captured a total of 45, prisoners of war.

By the end of , the British had deployed , men in the area, of which , were combat troops. These three provinces were joined into one Kingdom by the British after the region became a League of Nations mandate , administered under British control, with the name " State of Iraq ".

A fourth province Zor Sanjak , which Iraqi nationalists considered part of Upper Mesopotamia was ultimately added to Syria. Likewise, British authorities selected Sunni Arab elites from the region for appointments to government and ministry offices.

Faced with spiraling costs and influenced by the public protestations of the war hero T. Britain granted independence to the Kingdom of Iraq in , [67] on the urging of King Faisal , though the British retained military bases , local militia in the form of Assyrian Levies , and transit rights for their forces.

King Ghazi ruled as a figurehead after King Faisal's death in , while undermined by attempted military coups , until his death in Ghazi was followed by his underage son, Faisal II.

During the subsequent Anglo-Iraqi War , the United Kingdom which still maintained air bases in Iraq invaded Iraq for fear that the Rashid Ali government might cut oil supplies to Western nations because of his links to the Axis powers.

The war started on 2 May, and the British, together with loyal Assyrian Levies , [68] defeated the forces of Al-Gaylani, forcing an armistice on 31 May.

A military occupation followed the restoration of the pre-coup government of the Hashemite monarchy. The occupation ended on 26 October , although Britain was to retain military bases in Iraq until , after which the Assyrian militias were disbanded.

The rulers during the occupation and the remainder of the Hashemite monarchy were Nuri as-Said , the autocratic Prime Minister, who also ruled from to , and 'Abd al-Ilah, the former Regent who now served as an adviser to King Faisal II.

This revolt was strongly anti-imperial and anti-monarchical in nature and had strong socialist elements.

After the latter's death in , he was succeeded by his brother, Abdul Rahman Arif , who was overthrown by the Ba'ath Party in Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr became the first Ba'ath President of Iraq but then the movement gradually came under the control of Saddam Hussein , who acceded to the presidency and control of the Revolutionary Command Council RCC , then Iraq's supreme executive body, in July In , the Iranian Revolution took place.

Taking advantage of the post-revolution chaos in Iran, Iraq captured some territories in southwest of Iran, but Iran recaptured all of the lost territories within two years, and for the next six years Iran was on the offensive.

In August , Iraq invaded and annexed Kuwait. The coalition forces proceeded with a bombing campaign targeting military targets [80] [81] [82] and then launched a hour-long ground assault against Iraqi forces in Southern Iraq and those occupying Kuwait.

Iraq's armed forces were devastated during the war. Shortly after it ended in , Shia and Kurdish Iraqis led several uprisings against Saddam Hussein's regime, but these were successfully repressed using the Iraqi security forces and chemical weapons.

It is estimated that as many as , people, including many civilians were killed. Iraq was ordered to destroy its chemical and biological weapons and the UN attempted to compel Saddam's government to disarm and agree to a ceasefire by imposing additional sanctions on the country in addition to the initial sanctions imposed following Iraq's invasion of Kuwait.

The Iraqi Government's failure to disarm and agree to a ceasefire resulted in sanctions which remained in place until The effects of the sanctions on the civilian population of Iraq have been disputed.

On 20 March , a United States-organized coalition invaded Iraq , under the pretext that Iraq had failed to abandon its weapons of mass destruction program in violation of UN Resolution This claim was based on documents provided by the CIA and the British government that were later found to be unreliable.

In May L. An insurgency against the US-led coalition -rule of Iraq began in summer within elements of the former Iraqi secret police and army, who formed guerrilla units.

In fall , self-entitled ' jihadist ' groups began targeting coalition forces. The insurgency included intense inter-ethnic violence between Sunnis and Shias.

In January , the first elections since the invasion took place and in October a new Constitution was approved, which was followed by parliamentary elections in December.

However, insurgent attacks were common and increased to 34, in from 26, in During , fighting continued and reached its highest levels of violence, more war crimes scandals were made public, Abu Musab al-Zarqawi the leader of Al-Qaeda in Iraq was killed by US forces and Iraq's former dictator Saddam Hussein was sentenced to death for crimes against humanity and hanged.

Bush announced a "Surge" in the number of US troops deployed to the country. In May , Iraq's Parliament called on the United States to set a timetable for withdrawal and US coalition partners such as the UK and Denmark began withdrawing their forces from the country.

In , fighting continued and Iraq's newly trained armed forces launched attacks against militants.

US troops handed over security duties to Iraqi forces in June , though they continued to work with Iraqi forces after the pullout.

Following the withdrawal of US troops in , the insurgency continued and Iraq suffered from political instability. In February , the Arab Spring protests spread to Iraq ; [] but the initial protests did not topple the government.

The Iraqi National Movement , reportedly representing the majority of Iraqi Sunnis, boycotted Parliament for several weeks in late and early , claiming that the Shiite-dominated government was striving to sideline Sunnis.

In and , levels of violence increased and armed groups inside Iraq were increasingly galvanised by the Syrian Civil War. Both Sunnis and Shias crossed the border to fight in Syria.

During , Sunni militant groups stepped up attacks targeting the Iraq's Shia population in an attempt to undermine confidence in the Nouri al-Maliki -led government.

The US government welcomed this as "another major step forward" in uniting Iraq. In response to rapid territorial gains made by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant ISIL during the first half of , and its universally-condemned executions and reported human rights abuses , many states began to intervene against it in the Iraqi Civil War — In September , a referendum was held regarding Kurdish independence in Iraq.

Serious civil unrest rocked the country beginning in Baghdad and Najaf in July and spreading to other provinces in late September as rallies to protest corruption, unemployment, and public service failures turned violent.

Protests and demonstrations started again on 1 October , against 16 years of corruption, unemployment and inefficient public services, before they escalated into calls to overthrow the administration and to stop Iranian intervention in Iraq.

The Iraqi government at times reacted harshly, resulting in over deaths by 12 December The U. On 29 December , the United States bombed five Kata'ib Hezbollah militia's positions in Iraq and Syria , in retaliation for the presumed Kata'ib attack of 27 December.

According to Iraqi sources, at least 25 militia fighters were killed. On 31 December , after a funeral for Kata'ib Hezbollah militiamen killed by U.

Demonstrators smashed a door of the checkpoint, set fire to the reception area, left anti-American posters and sprayed anti-American graffiti. Following months of protests that broke out across Iraq in October and the resignation of Prime Minister Adel Abdul Mahdi and his cabinet, Mustafa Al Kadhimi became a leading contender for the Premiership.

On 9 April , he was named by President Barham Salih as prime minister-designate , the third person tapped to lead the country in just 10 weeks as it struggled to replace a government that fell last year after months of protests.

Kadhimi was nominated by President Barham Salih, state television reported, shortly after the previous designated prime minister , Adnan al-Zurfi , announced he was withdrawing having failed to secure enough support to pass a government.

It is comparable in size to the US state of California , and somewhat larger than Paraguay. Most of Iraq has a hot arid climate with subtropical influence.

Rainfall during the summer is extremely rare, except in the far north of the country. The northern mountainous regions have cold winters with occasional heavy snows, sometimes causing extensive flooding.

The federal government of Iraq is defined under the current Constitution as a democratic , federal parliamentary republic.

The federal government is composed of the executive , legislative , and judicial branches, as well as numerous independent commissions.

Aside from the federal government, there are regions made of one or more governorates , governorates, and districts within Iraq with jurisdiction over various matters as defined by law.

The party has a more consistent anti-sectarian perspective than most of its rivals. Both parties are secular and enjoy close ties with the West. In , according to the Failed States Index , Iraq was the world's eleventh most politically unstable country.

He announced on 14 August that he would stand aside so that Haider Al-Abadi , who had been nominated just days earlier by newly installed President Fuad Masum , could take over.

Until that point, al-Maliki had clung to power even asking the federal court to veto the president's nomination describing it as a violation of the constitution.

Transparency International ranks Iraq's government as the eighth-most-corrupt government in the world. Government payroll have increased from 1 million employees under Saddam Hussein to around 7 million employees in Since the establishment of the no—fly zones following the Gulf War of —, the Kurds established their own autonomous region.

Under the terms of the constitution, the country conducted fresh nationwide parliamentary elections on 15 December All three major ethnic groups in Iraq voted along ethnic lines, as did Assyrian and Turcoman minorities.

Law no. In Iraq introduced Sharia punishment for certain types of criminal offences. In , the CPA chief executive L.

Paul Bremer said he would veto any constitutional draft stating that sharia is the principal basis of law. The Iraqi Penal Code is the statutory law of Iraq.

The Peshmerga are a separate armed force loyal to the Kurdistan Regional Government. The regional government and the central government disagree as to whether they are under Baghdad's authority and to what extent.

The Iraqi Army is an objective counter-insurgency force that as of November includes 14 divisions, each division consisting of 4 brigades.

The Iraqi Air Force is designed to support ground forces with surveillance, reconnaissance and troop lift.

Two reconnaissance squadrons use light aircraft, three helicopter squadrons are used to move troops and one air transportation squadron uses C transport aircraft to move troops, equipment, and supplies.

It currently has 3, personnel. It is planned to increase to 18, personnel, with aircraft by The Iraqi Navy is a small force with 1, sailors and officers, including Marines , designed to protect shoreline and inland waterways from insurgent infiltration.

The navy is also responsible for the security of offshore oil platforms. The navy will have coastal patrol squadrons, assault boat squadrons and a marine battalion.

In , U. Deputy Secretary of Defense Michael Mulroy said that the relationship with the Defense Department and the Iraqi Army was among our most compelling strategic interests and that the U.

Under the provisions of this treaty , Iraq is considered a party with declared stockpiles of chemical weapons. Because of their late accession, Iraq is the only State Party exempt from the existing timeline for destruction of their chemical weapons.

Specific criteria is in development to address the unique nature of Iraqi accession. Iran—Iraq relations have flourished since by the exchange of high level visits: Iraqi PM Nouri al-Maliki made frequent visits to Iran, along with Jalal Talabani visiting numerous times, to help boost bilateral co-operation in all fields.

On 5 January , the Iraqi parliament voted for a resolution that urges the government to work on expelling U. The resolution was passed two days after a U.

The resolution specifically calls for ending of a agreement allowing Washington to help Iraq against Islamic State groups by sending troops.

Relations between Iraq and its Kurdish population have been sour in recent history, especially with Saddam Hussein's genocidal campaign against them in the s.

After uprisings during the early 90s , many Kurds fled their homeland and no-fly zones were established in northern Iraq to prevent more conflicts.

Despite historically poor relations, some progress has been made, and Iraq elected its first Kurdish president, Jalal Talabani , in Furthermore, Kurdish is now an official language of Iraq alongside Arabic according to Article 4 of the constitution.

LGBT rights in Iraq remain limited. Although decriminalised , homosexuality remains stigmatised in Iraqi society. People who dress in emo style are mistakenly associated with homosexuality and may suffer the same fate.

On May 14, , Human Rights Watch said that Iraqi government should focus on the key areas to advance human rights in the country through a legislation.

Several areas need a legislative reform to bring Iraqi law in line with international standards. Prime Minister of Iraq Mustafa Al-Kadhimi has a unique opportunity to tackle over a decade of free speech restrictions and should reform its penal code and other laws.

Kurdistan Region Erbil , Dohuk , Sulaymaniyah and Halabja is the only legally defined region within Iraq, with its own government and quasi-official army Peshmerga.

Prior to US occupation, Iraq's centrally planned economy prohibited foreign ownership of Iraqi businesses, ran most large industries as state-owned enterprises, and imposed large tariffs to keep out foreign goods.

In February , Citigroup included Iraq in a group of countries which it described as 'Global Growth Generators' , that it argued will enjoy significant economic growth in the future.

The official currency in Iraq is the Iraqi dinar. The Coalition Provisional Authority issued new dinar coins and notes, with the notes printed by De La Rue using modern anti-forgery techniques.

Five years after the invasion, an estimated 2. According to the Overseas Development Institute , international NGOs face challenges in carrying out their mission, leaving their assistance "piecemeal and largely conducted undercover, hindered by insecurity, a lack of coordinated funding, limited operational capacity and patchy information".

With its During the s Iraq produced up to 3. The sanctions were lifted in after the US-led invasion removed Saddam Hussein from power, but development of Iraq's oil resources has been hampered by the ongoing conflict.

As of [update] , despite improved security and billions of dollars in oil revenue, Iraq still generates about half the electricity that customers demand, leading to protests during the hot summer months.

The Iraq oil law , a proposed piece of legislation submitted to the Council of Representatives of Iraq in , has failed to gain approval due to disagreements among Iraq's various political blocs.

Several United States senators had also criticised the deal, arguing it was hindering efforts to pass the hydrocarbon law. On 30 June and 11 December , the Iraqi ministry of oil awarded service contracts to international oil companies for some of Iraq's many oil fields.

On 14 March , the International Energy Agency said Iraq's oil output jumped by half a million barrels a day in February to average 3.

The country had not pumped that much oil since , when Saddam Hussein rose to power. Baghdad condemned the seizure and threatened "dire consequences" if the fields were not returned.

Water supply and sanitation in Iraq is characterized by poor water and service quality. Three decades of war, combined with limited environmental awareness, have destroyed Iraq's water resources management system.

Access to potable water differs significantly among governorates and between urban and rural areas.

Although many infrastructure projects are underway, Iraq remains in deep housing crisis, with the war-ravaged country likely to complete only 5 percent of the 2.

The estimate of the total Iraqi population is 38,, Around 20, Marsh Arabs live in southern Iraq. Iraq has a community of 2, Chechens.

Prior to the invasion in , Arabic was the sole official language. According to the Iraqi constitution :. The Arabic language and the Kurdish language are the two official languages of Iraq.

The right of Iraqis to educate their children in their mother tongue, such as Turkmen, Assyrian, and Armenian shall be guaranteed in government educational institutions in accordance with educational guidelines, or in any other language in private educational institutions.

The Sunni population complains of facing discrimination in almost all aspects of life by the government. However, former Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki denied that such discrimination occurs.

Christianity in Iraq has its roots from the conception of the Church of the East in the 5th century AD, predating the existence of Islam in the region.

There is also a significant population of Armenian Christians in Iraq who had fled Turkey during the Armenian genocide. Christians numbered over 1.

There are also small ethno-religious minority populations of Mandaeans , Shabaks , Yarsan and Yezidis remaining. Prior to their numbers together may have been 2 million, the majority Yarsan, a non-Islamic religion with roots in pre-Islamic and pre-Christian religion.

There are reports of over The Iraqi Jewish community, numbering around , in , has almost entirely left the country. Iraq is home to two of the world's holiest places among Shias: Najaf and Karbala.

The dispersion of native Iraqis to other countries is known as the Iraqi diaspora. The UN High Commission for Refugees has estimated that nearly two million Iraqis fled the country after the multinational invasion of Iraq in , mostly to Syria and Jordan.

As of [update] , nearly 3 million Iraqis had been displaced, with 1. After the start of the Syrian Civil War in , numerous Iraqi refugees in Syria returned to their native country.

In , spending on healthcare accounted for 6. In , there were 6. Iraq had developed a centralised free health care system in the s using a hospital based, capital-intensive model of curative care.

Unlike other poorer countries, which focused on mass health care using primary care practitioners, Iraq developed a Westernized system of sophisticated hospitals with advanced medical procedures, provided by specialist physicians.

Before Iraq faced economic sanctions from the UN, it already had an advanced and successful Arab education system.

At the turn of the millennium, many countries, including Iraq, attempted to take part in the Millennium Development Goals as a way to help underdeveloped countries prosper.

In Iraq, one of the goals was for education to be universally available for both boys and girls at the primary level.

In general, the education of Iraq has been improving since the MDGs were implemented. However, the dramatic increase of the number of students in primary education has had some negative and straining effects for the education system.

At the same time, UNICEF investigated portions of spending for education and found that some of the money has gone to waste.

Many of those people who dropout or have to repeat a grade do not see the economic cost for long term results. Other statistics show that regional differences can attribute to lower or higher enrollment rates for children in primary education.

There are also the differing enrollment rates between boys and girls. Although the numbers suggest a dramatic increase of enrollment rates for primary education in total, a large number of children still remain out of the education system.

About , of internally displaced children are not in the education system. With the overall increase of enrollment rates, there continues to be a large strain on the resources for education.

Education is mandatory only through to the sixth grade, after which a national examination determines the possibility of continuing into the upper grades.

In , obstacles to further reform were poor security conditions in many areas, a centralised system that lacked accountability for teachers and administrators, and the isolation in which the system functioned for the previous 30 years.

According to the Webometrics Ranking of World Universities , the top-ranking universities in the country are the University of Dohuk th worldwide , the University of Baghdad th and Babylon University th.

Iraq is known primarily for its rich maqam heritage which has been passed down orally by the masters of the maqam in an unbroken chain of transmission leading up to the present.

The maqam al-Iraqi is considered to be the most noble and perfect form of maqam. Al-maqam al-Iraqi is the collection of sung poems written either in one of the sixteen meters of classical Arabic or in Iraqi dialect Zuhayri.

Early in the 20th century, many of the most prominent musicians in Iraq were Jewish. At the nightclubs of Baghdad, ensembles consisted of oud, qanun and two percussionists, while the same format with a ney and cello were used on the radio.

The most famous early composer from Iraq was Ezra Aharon , an oud player, while the most prominent instrumentalist was Daoud Al-Kuwaiti.

Important cultural institutions in the capital include the Iraqi National Symphony Orchestra — rehearsals and performances were briefly interrupted during the Occupation of Iraq but have since returned to normal.

The National Theatre of Iraq was looted during the invasion, but efforts are underway to restore it. The live theatre scene received a boost during the s when UN sanctions limited the import of foreign films.

As many as 30 cinemas were reported to have been converted to live stages, producing a wide range of comedies and dramatic productions.

Baghdad also features a number of museums including the National Museum of Iraq — which houses the world's largest and finest collection of artefacts and relics of Ancient Iraqi civilisations; some of which were stolen during the Occupation of Iraq.

The capital, Ninus or Nineveh , was taken by the Medes under Cyaxares , and some years after Xenophon passed over its site, then mere mounds of earth.

It remained buried until , when Botta and Layard discovered the ruins of the Assyrian cities. In these cities are found fragments of several great buildings which seem to have been palace-temples.

They were constructed chiefly of sun-dried bricks , and all that remains of them is the lower part of the walls, decorated with sculpture and paintings, portions of the pavements, a few indications of the elevation, and some interesting works connected with the drainage.

After the end of the full state control in , there were a period of significant growth in the broadcast media in Iraq.

Immediately, and the ban on satellite dishes is no longer in place, and by mid, according to a BBC report, there were 20 radio stations from 0.

Significantly, there have been many of these newspapers in numbers disproportionate to the population of their locations.

For example, in Najaf , which has a population of ,, is being published more than 30 newspapers and distributed.

Iraqi media expert and author of a number of reports on this subject, Ibrahim Al Marashi, identifies four stages of the US invasion of Iraq in where they had been taking the steps that have significant effects on the way for the later of the Iraqi media since then.

Stages are: pre-invasion preparation, and the war and the actual choice of targets, the first post-war period, and a growing insurgency and hand over power to the Iraqi Interim Government IIG and Prime Minister Iyad Allawi.

Iraqi cuisine can be traced back some 10, years — to the Sumerians , Akkadians , Babylonians , Assyrians and Ancient Persians.

Some characteristic ingredients of Iraqi cuisine include — vegetables such as aubergine , tomato , okra , onion , potato , courgette , garlic , peppers and chilli , cereals such as rice , bulgur wheat and barley , pulses and legumes such as lentils , chickpeas and cannellini , fruits such as dates , raisins , apricots , figs , grapes , melon , pomegranate and citrus fruits , especially lemon and lime.

Similarly with other countries of Western Asia , chicken and especially lamb are the favourite meats. Most dishes are served with rice — usually Basmati , grown in the marshes of southern Iraq.

Football is the most popular sport in Iraq. Football is a considerable uniting factor in Iraq following years of war and unrest. Basketball , swimming , weightlifting , bodybuilding , boxing , kick boxing and tennis are also popular sports.

Despite having mobile phones in the Middle East since , Iraqis were only able to use mobile phones after , as Mobile phones were banned under Saddam Hussein 's rule.

According to the Iraqi Ministry of Communication, Iraq is now in the second phase of building and launching a multipurpose strategic satellite.

On 18 January , Iraq was connected to the undersea communications network for the first time. In October , the Iraqi Minister for Communication ordered internet prices to be lowered by a third.

This is an attempt to boost usage and comes as a result of significant improvements in Internet infrastructure in the country. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This article is about the country in Western Asia. For other uses, see Iraq disambiguation. Country in the Middle East.

Arabic Kurdish [1]. Turkish Assyrian Armenian. Constitution of Iraq, Article 4 1st. Main article: History of Iraq. Main article: History of Mesopotamia.

This section relies largely or entirely on a single source. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page.

Please help improve this article by introducing citations to additional sources. Main articles: Ottoman Iraq and Mamluk dynasty of Iraq.

Main articles: Mandatory Iraq and Kingdom of Iraq. See also: Iraqi Civil War — , American-led intervention in Iraq —present , Iraqi—Kurdish conflict , and Iraqi insurgency —present.

Main articles: Geography of Iraq and Governorates of Iraq. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. June Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: Politics of Iraq. Main article: Law of Iraq.

Main article: Iraqi Armed Forces. Controlled by Iraqi government. Controlled by Iraqi Kurds. Main article: Foreign relations of Iraq.

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. June Main article: Human rights in Iraq. Main article: Governorates of Iraq. Main article: Economy of Iraq.

Main articles: Oil reserves in Iraq and Energy in Iraq. Main article: Water supply and sanitation in Iraq.

See also: Demographics of Iraq. Main article: Languages of Iraq. Play media. Main article: List of cities in Iraq. Largest cities or towns in Iraq According to the Estimate [].

Religion in Iraq, [] Shia Islam. Main articles: Refugees of Iraq and Assyrian exodus from Iraq. Main article: Health in Iraq.

Main article: Education in Iraq. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

October Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: Culture of Iraq. See also: Tourism in Iraq.

Main article: Music of Iraq. Main articles: Architecture of Mesopotamia and Iraqi art. Main article: Media of Iraq.

Main article: Iraqi cuisine. Main article: Sport in Iraq. Iraq portal Kurdistan portal Asia portal. Constitute Project. Retrieved 31 August Retrieved 9 November International Monetary Fund.

Retrieved 7 March Retrieved 17 August United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 14 December The World Factbook. Retrieved 23 March Retrieved 18 December The University of Chicago Press.

Kaufman Journal of Near Eastern Studies. Retrieved 13 June Iraq's Secret Sex Trade. Patrick Wells. Twitter Facebook E-mail. Featured Films 54m.

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Undocumented in the Pandemic. United States of Conspiracy. Opioids, Inc. Years of conflict and turmoil in Iraq have widowed women and orphaned children, further worsening the conditions in which they live.

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